International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences <div align="justify"> <div align="justify"> <p>International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (Int J Pharm Pharm Sci) is a peer-reviewed, open-access journal published monthly (April 2014). IJPPS publishes original research work as original articles or short communications, significantly advancing scientific knowledge in pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences. The journal also considers articles on the current and trending subject, provided they match the current research needs and possess scientific impact.</p> <p>The scope of the journal encompasses the following</p> <ul> <li>Pharmaceutical Technology, Pharmaceutics, Novel Drug Delivery, Biopharmaceutics, Pharmacokinetics</li> <li>Pharmacognosy and Natural Product Research</li> <li>Pharmaceutical/Medicinal Chemistry, Computational Chemistry and Molecular Drug Design, Pharmaceutical Analysis</li> <li>Pharmacology, Toxicology, Pharmacy Practice, Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy</li> <li>Cell Biology, Genomics and Proteomics, Pharmacogenomics, Bioinformatics, Pharmacoeconomics.</li> <li>Case studies cover the treatment with medicine.</li> <li>Biotechnological studies of pharmaceutical interest.</li> <li>Research outcomes of endemic/pandemic situations</li> </ul> <p>Since March 2016, the journal has also started considering hypotheses; however, the frequency is limited.</p> </div> </div> en-US (Editor) (Anchal) Fri, 01 Mar 2024 13:39:46 +0530 OJS 60 AN ANALYSIS OF PRESCRIPTION PATTERN, ADHERENCE TO PHARMACOTHERAPY AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS PATIENTS <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>: </strong>Pemphigus Vulgaris [PV] is a chronic autoimmune disease. Corticosteroids and Immunosuppressants are the main line of treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prescription pattern and patient adherence behavior with therapy. We determined the association between patient adherence and quality of life in patients with pemphigus vulgaris.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A prospective observational study was conducted from February 2020 to May 2021. The age and sex of patients who were diagnosed with PV within 1 mo period and confirmative histopathological findings in Biopsy were included in the study. A total of 35 patients were analyzed and patients were reviewed for medication adherence and quality of life by using MMAS-8 and WHOQOL respectively, monthly till 3 mo after initiation of therapy. Statistical analysis was done by using Epi Info version 7.1.5.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of 140 prescriptions, vitamin C and zinc were the most common drug prescribed in 129 prescriptions followed by prednisolone prescribed in 128 prescriptions. The average number of drugs per encounter was 8.67. 97.56 % of drugs were prescribed by generic names. No significant improvement was seen in the adherence behavior of patients from 1st follow-up to 3<sup>rd</sup> follow-up. It was observed that physical, psychological, and environmental domains have significant associations with medication adherence in all 3 follow-up visits.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It was concluded that Polypharmacy and inappropriate use of medicines may decrease the adherence behavior of patients to the therapy. Low adherence to pharmacotherapy affects the quality of life in PV patients. This study is beneficial for raising awareness about treatment adherence and also encouraging the development of appropriate interventions.</p> RIDHDHI K. HIRAPARA, ANIL P. SINGH, BHARTI N. KARELIA, ANITA SINHA Copyright (c) 2024 RIDHDHI K. HIRAPARA, ANIL P. SINGH, BHARTI N. KARELIA, ANITA SINHA Fri, 01 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0530 HAEMATO-BIOCHEMCIAL STUDIES OF NANOPARTICLE-BASED VACCINE AGAINST R2B STRAIN OF NEW CASTLE DISEASE IN CHICKS <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The goal of the current study is to create a Newcastle disease vaccine based on green synthesised metal oxide nanoparticles and to study the haematological and biochemical effects of this vaccine in chicks.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Copper Oxide Nanoparticles (CuONPs) from <em>Momordica charantia</em> were synthesised biologically. These copper oxide nanoparticles were combined with a commercially available freeze-dried Newcastle Di0sease (ND) vaccination of the live R2B strain to use it as a vaccine delivery method in the current work. Haematological and biochemical parameters were investigated in pre-challenged and post-challenged chicks.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>After the injection of copper nanoparticles-based vaccines, it was found that the pre-challenged animals and post challeneged animals showed highly significant difference (P&lt;0.05) in their total White Blood Cells (WBC) counts, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit value, and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) in comparison to control and live vaccinated groups. It was also investigated that for biochemical parameters After the injection of copper nanoparticles-based vaccines, both pre-challenged animals and post challeneged animals showed highly significant difference (P&lt;0.05) in their blood glucose level, serum total protein, creatinine, serum alkaline phosphatase, Aspartate Amino Transferase (ALT) and Alanine Amino Transferasse (AST) in comparison to control and live vaccinated groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The vaccine not only makes chicks healthier, but also shields them from the virus that causes Newcastle disease</p> RUHI TOMAR, SHIVANI YADAV, DUSHYANT K. CHAUHAN Copyright (c) 2024 RUHI TOMAR, SHIVANI YADAV, DUSHYANT K. CHAUHAN Fri, 01 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0530 EXPLORING THE THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL OF AM114: A BORONIC CHALCONE DERIVATIVE INDUCE APOPTOSIS AND SUPPRESS PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES AND CHEMOKINES IN INTERLEUKIN-1β STIMULATED HUMAN THP-1 DERIVED MACROPHAGES <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Chalcones and their derivatives display a wide range of pharmacological activities. This study examined the effects of AM114, a boronic-chalcone derivative, on human THP-1-derived macrophages with and without interleukin-1β (IL-1β) stimulation. </p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>AM114 and Aspirin-treated THP-1-derived macrophages underwent activation with or without interleukin-1β. The IC<sub>50</sub> concentrations of AM114 and Aspirin were determined through an MTT test. Apoptosis was measured using various techniques, including staining with acridine orange/Ethidium bromide, Hoechst 33342, and rhodamine 123 assays. Caspase-3 activity was measured using the spectrofluorimetric technique, while DNA fragmentation was assessed via agarose gel electrophoresis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and chemokines like interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>AM114 and Aspirin showed dose-dependent cytotoxic effects on THP-1 macrophages. Induction of apoptosis was detected in AM114-treated THP-1 macrophages activated with IL-1β compared to macrophages without IL-1β. The gradation of dye uptake, membrane blebbing, increased caspase-3 activity, and DNA fragmentation ensures the induction of apoptosis, which indicates the cell's morphological changes, biochemical processes, and mitochondrial activity. Treating AM114 in IL-1β-activated THP-1 macrophages significantly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6) and chemokines (IL-8), suggesting its anti-cytokine potential in inflammatory diseases.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study results emphasize that AM114 could act as an anti-inflammatory agent by triggering apoptosis and reducing the release of cytokines and chemokines in inflammatory conditions. As a result, it may be used as a therapeutic option for inflammatory diseases.</p> CHITRA SELVARAJAN, NALINI GANESAN Copyright (c) 2024 CHITRA SELVARAJAN, NALINI GANESAN Fri, 01 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0530 DRUG-INDUCED CUTANEOUS REACTIONS: A PHARMACOVIGILANCE STUDY <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Drug-induced cutaneous reactions are common problem in our country and can range from simple rash to severe reactions. Early recognition of these reactions enables early identification and withdrawal of offending drugs, thereby reducing morbidity and mortality. So present study aimed to assess clinical pattern of drug-induced cutaneous reactions in Dermatology OPD.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This study was an open, non-comparative, non-interventional, observational study conducted on patients visiting dermatology department to see the clinical pattern of drug-induced cutaneous reactions. A total of 60 patients with suspected cutaneous adverse drug reactions were recruited. A detailed physical examination was done by a physician, including drug intake during 3 w preceding reactions and type of drug reactions.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Most frequently reported cutaneous drug reactions were Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (23%), Maculopapular rash (18%) Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (15%) and were caused by antiepileptic drugs in 21(35%) patients, followed by antibiotics in 17(28.33%) cases, NSAID’s in 7(11.6%) cases, antitubercular drugs in 3(5%) and antiretroviral drugs in 3(5%) cases. A high proportioned of these reactions (50%) were moderate (31%) of these were severe because they require hospitalisation or increased the duration of stay in hospital or were life-threatening in (1%). Principal offending drug was phenytoin.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>A good knowledge of ADRs, a careful history taking and watchful approach while prescribing of drugs can prevent many of adverse drug reactions. These facts justify the development of an intensive programme of pharmacovigilance.</p> MITALI DUA, ARVIND NARWAT, ABHINAV GOYAL Copyright (c) 2024 MITALI DUA, ARVIND NARWAT, ABHINAV GOYAL Fri, 01 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0530 A COMMUNITY-BASED SURVEY TO ASSESS THE PREVALENCE AND ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS FOR TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS IN THE TWO REGIONAL STATES OF SOUTHERN INDIA–A PILOT STUDY <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The concurrent study aimed to assess and analyse the prevalence and etiological factors responsible for the occurrence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus among the labour population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the labour in the two regional states of southern India. This study was conducted for 6 mo in the two states of the southern region of India.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A questionnaire was designed with various questions to study the prevalence and scrutinize the causes responsible for the occurrence of type 2 diabetes among the labour population. A total number of n=104 respondents participated, out of which 57 were diabetic and were further analysed. The results were compiled and subjected to the statistical analysis (Chi-square test).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In the demographics, the majority of the participants were females (n=33), while the remaining were males. 75% of the participants were with age groups between 31-60 y, about 50% were uneducated and belonged to lower income category. Etiological factors like family history (&gt;50%) and comorbid conditions (n=43) were more responsible for the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes. In the food habits assessment, carbohydrates and non-vegetarian consumption were more in majority (&gt;45%) of the respondents. 86% of the participants were on medication, along with only 57.8% were recorded with HbA1c. Diet restrictions and timely intake of food were up to the level after the diagnosis of the disease. Nearly 50% of diabetics were confident about the management of the disease and 54 respondents were spotted to have a keen interest in acquiring knowledge further.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The findings concluded that the diabetic participants followed the necessary diet requirements and were on medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.</p> P. SAILAJA RAO, SANA BUTOOL, SHIRAZ AHMED MANIYAR, FAZEELA TUNNISA, MOHAMMED ALI SOHAIL, MOHAMMED MUKKARAM ALI, BHUSHRA TAHSEEN Copyright (c) 2024 P. SAILAJA RAO, SANA BATOOL, SHIRAZ AHMED MANIYAR, FAZEELA TUNNISA, MOHAMMED ALI SOHAIL, MOHAMMED MUKKARAM ALI, BHUSHRA TAHSEEN Fri, 01 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0530 A COMPARATIVE STUDY TO EVALUATE EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF TOPICAL CIPROFLOXACIN V/S FORTIFIED GENTAMICIN-CEFTAZIDIME IN BACTERIAL KERATITIS” AT A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE IN TELANGANA <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To compare the efficacy and safety of topical ciprofloxacin v/s fortified gentamicin-ceftazidime in bacterial keratitis.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This was a randomized control trial done on 60 subjects with 30 subjects in each group. The clinical signs and symptoms are recorded in two groups of bacterial keratitis patients at baseline and after 2 w of treatment using ciprofloxacin ophthalmic solution and standard therapy regimen of fortified gentamicin-ceftazidime using scoring of ocular signs and symptoms (1=minimum, not present), (5=maximum, severe) with a study period of 3 mo</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The group administered with fortified ceftazidime+gentamicin demonstrated superior clinical and statistical efficacy compared to ciprofloxacin in treating bacterial keratitis. This regimen led to a substantial alleviation of symptoms and minimized ocular discomfort to a greater extent. Notably, the calculated p-value for the day 14 score, standing at 0.02 (below the 0.05 threshold), underscores the significant superiority of fortified ceftazidime+gentamicin in symptom reduction.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>We conclude that fortified ceftazidime+gentamicin is better than ciprofloxacin for the treatment of bacterial keratitis.</p> N. KARUNASREE, FAHEEM BEGUM, MOHAMMED OBAIDULLAH KHAN, KHATIJATUL KUBRA NAMEERA Copyright (c) 2024 N. KARUNASREE, FAHEEM BEGUM, MOHAMMED OBAIDULLAH KHAN, KHATIJATUL KUBRA NAMEERA Fri, 01 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0530 A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EVALUATING THE OUTCOME OF DISPLACED ISOLATED MEDIAL MALLEOLUS FRACTURE MANAGED WITH TENSION BAND WIRING (TBW) VERSUS MALLEOLAR SCREWS FIXATION <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The Ankle fractures are becoming more prevalent as a result of increased road traffic accidents and sports injuries. There are various modalities of treatment available for Medial Malleolus fractures. Undisplaced fractures are managed conservatively with slab or cast and displaced fractures are fixed with screws, k wires, anchors, tension wiring and plates. The main objective of the study is to compare the clinical outcomes of Tension band wiring versus Malleolar screws in managing Displaced Isolated Medial Malleolus fractures.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This is a cross-sectional study conducted in the Department of Orthopaedics in Kurnool Medical College with 35 patients from November 2022 to November 2023 over one year with displaced isolated Medial Malleolus fractures. Postoperatively the patients are evaluated based on clinical and radiological examinations at one, three, and six months, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The patients are evaluated with Baird and Jackson scoring system postoperatively, where Excellent score: 8(47%) in group 1 and 7(38.8%) in group 2; Good score: 8(47%) in group 1 and 8(44.4 %) in group 2; Fair score: 1(5.8%) in group 1 and 2(11.1%) in group 2; Poor score: 0 in group 1 and 1(5.5%) in group 2. Hence excellent and good results are obtained in 16(94%) patients in group 1(TBW) and 15(82.2) patients in group 2(Malleolar Screws).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Tension band wiring can be a better option than Malleolar screws in fixation of Displaced Isolated Medial Malleolus fractures.</p> A. M. ILIAS BASHA, K. B. VIJAYA MOHAN REDDY, A. PAVAN KUMAR BABU, S. SUJIN Copyright (c) 2024 A. M. ILIAS BASHA, K. B. VIJAYA MOHAN REDDY, A. PAVAN KUMAR BABU, S. SUJIN Fri, 01 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0530 BACTERIOCIN PRODUCED BY LACTIC ACID BACTERIA: A PROBIOTIC <p>Chemical preservatives, usually used during the long period, to protect the food materials by controlling undesirable bacteria and harmful spoiler, have been proved as toxic to human health. Conscious consumers have serious awareness to purchase safe foods without chemical additives. In the recent years, bio-preservation is gained increasing attention to harmonize consumer demands along with standard food quality. Various attempts are growing on the use of micro-organisms or their antimicrobial metabolites for the protection of food products. The bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have a relatively broad antimicrobial spectrum against variety of food-borne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. Bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria or bacteriocins can be used in foods as bio-preservatives. The review is focused on bacteriocin produced by lactic acid bacteria.</p> BARNALI MANDAL Copyright (c) 2024 BARNALI MANDAL Fri, 01 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0530