• Hesty u Ramadaniati Faculty of Pharmacy Pancasila University
  • Taralan Tambunan
  • Sondang Khairani
  • Happy S Adisty



Objective: To estimate the prevalence of off-label and unlicensed prescribing in pediatric inpatients with nephrotic syndrome in a major teaching hospital in Indonesia.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in study hospital using medical records from pediatric inpatients with nephrotic syndrome during the period of January-December 2015. Patient and prescribing data were collected, and drugs were classified as on-label or off-label/unlicensed based on the Indonesia National Drug Information (IONI). Thereafter, off-label drugs were categorized with a hierarchical system of age, indication, route of administration, and dosage.

Results: There were 1553 drugs with 94 different types of drug administered to 67 patients during the study period. The data uncovered that1023  (65.9%)  of  the  drug  prescriptions  were  used  either  off-label/unlicensed.  Most  off-label  drugs  (n=433,  42.4%)  were  from  nondiureticsantihypertensive drugs. The most common drugs used in an off-label/unlicensed manner were prednisolone and lisinopril. The high rate of off-label drug use in children was mainly related to age (n=772, 75.5%). Pediatrics with nephrotic syndrome was vulnerable to off-label uses where every patient received at least two off-label drugs. It seems that off-label prescribing in pediatric with nephrotic syndrome was not influenced by age or gender as every patient received off-label drugs.

Conclusion: Despite the high prevalence of off-label use in pediatric patients with nephrotic syndrome, this use is supported by evidence-based prescribing. Further, there remains a need for supporting clinical trials for pediatric drugs and updating IONI as the standard drug information in Indonesia to provide complete product information for pediatric use.

Keywords: Off-label drug, Syndrome nephrotic, Inpatient, Pediatrics.


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Author Biography

Hesty u Ramadaniati, Faculty of Pharmacy Pancasila University

Department of Clinical and Community Pharmacy


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How to Cite

Ramadaniati, H. u, T. Tambunan, S. Khairani, and H. S. Adisty. “OFF-LABEL AND UNLICENSED PRESCRIBING IN PEDIATRIC INPATIENTS WITH NEPHROTIC SYNDROME IN A MAJOR TEACHING HOSPITAL: AN INDONESIAN CONTEXT”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 10, no. 1, Jan. 2017, pp. 355-9, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i1.15477.



Original Article(s)