ETHNOBOTANICAL, PHYTOCHEMICAL, AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF NEPENTHES SPECIES: A REVIEW
Keywords:Nepenthes species, Ethnobotanical, Phytochemistry, Pharmacological activities
The genus Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae) has been utilized in folk medicine for a long time in India and Southeast Asia countries. They are used in the treatment of leprosy, cholera, night blindness, gastrointestinal discomfort, dysentery, stomachache, and bed-wetting among others. This review highlights the ethnobotanical uses, phytochemicals, and pharmacological activities of both crude extracts and pure bioactive compounds of Nepenthes spp. The phytochemical compounds isolated from Nepenthes species include flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, alkaloids, and steroids among other phytochemicals. A wide range of pharmacological activities was exhibited by the crude extracts and pure bioactive components such as antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial antioxidant, antidiabetic, antiosteoporotic, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxicity, and hypolipidemic activities. This review revealed that many active compounds are present in Nepenthes spp. However, many pharmacological screenings such as anticancer, antiviral, wound healing, antihelminthic, antidiarrheal properties, among others have not been carried out yet. Therefore, more biological investigations and phytochemical screenings are required to fully explore the genus Nepenthes which may lead to development of new therapeutic agents. Â
Ijaz H, Tulain UR, Qureshi J, Danish Z, Musayab S, Akhtar MF, et al. Review: Nigella sativa (prophetic medicine): A review. Pak J Pharm Sci 2017;30(1):229-34.
Krishnakumar S, Bai VD, Rajan RA. Evaluation of bioactive metabolites from halophilic microalgae Dunaliella salina by GC - MS analysis. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013;5(4):296-303.
Antony E, Sathiavelu M, Arunachalam S. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from the medicinal plant Bauhinia acuminata and Biophytum sensitivum-a comparative study of its biological activities with plant extract. Int J Appl Pharm 2017;9(1):1-8.
Sanusi SB, Bakar MF, Mohamed M, Sabran SF, Mainasara MM. Southeast Asian medicinal plants as a potential source of anti-tuberculosis agent. Evid Based Complement Altern Med 2017;2017: Article ID: 7185649, 39.
Gajalakshmi S, Vijayalakshmi S, Rajeswari VD. Phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Annona muricata: A review. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4(2):13-6.
Himaja N, Shama SN. Herbal wealth for hepatotoxicity: A review. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2015;8(1):3-9.
Divya BJ, Suman B, Venkataswamy M, Thyagaraju K. A study on phytochemicals, functional groups and mineral composition of Allium sativum (garlic) cloves. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2017;9(3):40-3.
Monton C, Suksaeree J, Pathompak P. Can makjong (Scaphium macropodum) powder formed gel in effervescent blend? Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6(6):610-2.
Garza BAA, Arroyo JL, GonzÃ¡lez GG, GonzÃ¡lez EG, GonzÃ¡lez EG, de Torres NW, et al. Anti-fungal and anti-mycobacterial activity of plants of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Pak J Pharm Sci 2017;30(1):17-21.
Shad AA, Asmat S, Bakht J, Ala Uddin A. Screening of Aerva javanica and Linum ustitatissimum for their anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant activity. Pak J Pharm Sci 2017;30(1):67-73.
Rahmani AH, Aly SM. Nigella Sativa and its active constituents thymoquinone shows pivotal role in the diseases prevention and treatment. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2015;8(1):48-53.
Wan-Nor-AdibahWan Z, Loke KK, Zulkapli MM, Salleh IM, Goh HH, Noor NM. RNA-seq analysis of Nepenthes ampullaria. Int J Plant Sci 2016;164(4):635-9.
Shil D, Mohanty JP, Saleem TS, Debnath J, Uriah T. Anti-diabetic activity of leaf extract of Nepenthes khasiana hook on dexamethasone induced diabetic rats. J Pharm Chem Biol Sci 2014;1(1):6-11.
Buch F, Rott M, Rottloff S, Paetz C, Hilke I, Raessler M, et al. Secreted pitfall-trap fluid of carnivorous Nepenthes plants is unsuitable for microbial growth. Ann Bot 2013;111(3):375-83.
Moran JA, Clarke CM. The carnivorous syndrome in Nepenthes pitcher plants: current state of knowledge and potential future directions. Plant Signal Behav 2010;5(6):644-8.
Setiawan H, Hakim L, Batoro J. Ethnobotany of Nepenthes spp. In dayak Seberuang people, west Kalimantan, Indonesia. J Biodivers Environ Sci 2015;7(6):275-84.
Schwallier R, de Boer HJ, Visser N, van Vugt RR, Gravendeel B. Traps as treats: A traditional sticky rice snack persisting in rapidly changing Asian kitchens. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2015;11:24.
Shin KS, Lee SK, Cha BJ. Antifungal activity of plumbagin purified from leaves of Nepenthes ventricosa x maxima against phytopathogenic fungi. Plant Pathol J 2007;23(2):113-5.
Van Thanh N, Thao NP, Huong PT, Lee SH, Jang HD, Cuong NX, et al. Naphthoquinone and flavonoid constituents from the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis and their anti-osteoporotic and antioxidant activities. Phytochem Lett 2015;11:254-9.
Likhitwitayawuid K, Kaewamatawong R, Ruangrungsi N, Krungkrai J. Antimalarial naphthoquinones from Nepenthes thorelii. Planta Med 1998;64(3):237-41.
Ismail NA, Kamariah AS, Lim LB, Ahmad N. Phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation of methanolic extracts of the leaves of Nepenthes bicalcarata Hook. F. Int J Pharmacogn Phytochem Res 2015;7(6):1127-38.
Adam JH, Omar R, Wilcock CC. Phytochemical screening of flavonoids in three hybrids of Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae) and their putative parental species from Sarawak and Sabah. J Biol Sci 2002;2(9):623-5.
Shil D, Mohanty JP, Das T, Bhuyan NR, Uriah T, Mohamed-Saleem TS. Protective role of pitcher of Nepenthes khasiana Hook against dexamethazone induced hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in rat. Int J Res Pharm Sci 2010;1(2):195-8.
Tiewlasubon U, Mrityunjaya BP, Sivaiah K. In vitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Nepenthes Khasiana Hook. F against ethanol-induced. J Pharm Res 2015;14(4):81-9.
Sabran SF, Mohamed M, Abu Bakar MF. Ethnomedical knowledge of plants used for the treatment of tuberculosis in Johor, Malaysia. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2016;2016:2850845.
Aung HH, Chia LS, Goh NK, Chia TF, Ahmed AA, Pare PW, et al. Phenolic constituents from the leaves of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes gracilis. Fitoterapia 2002;73(5):445-7. 27. Shin KS, Lee S, Cha BJ. Suppression of phytopathogenic fungi by hexane extract of Nepenthes ventricosa x maxima leaf. Fitoterapia 2007;78(7-8):585-6.
Thanh NV, Thao NP, Dat le D, Huong PT, Lee SH, Jang HD, et al. Two new naphthalene glucosides and other bioactive compounds from the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis. Arch Pharm Res 2015;38(10):1774-82.
Wan AS, Aexel RT, Ramsey RB, Nicholas HJ. Sterols and triterpenes of the pitcher plant. Phytochemistry 1971;11(1):456-61.
Cannon J, Lojanapiwatna V, Raston C, Sinchai W, White A. The quinones of Nepenthes rafflesiana the crystal structure of 2, 5-dihydroxy-3, 8-dimethoxy-7-methylnaphtho-1, 4-quinone (nepenthone-E) and a synthesis of 2, 5-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-7-methylnaphtho-1, 4-quinone (nepenthone-C). Aust J Chem 1980;33(5):1073-93.
Eilenberg H, Pnini-Cohen S, Rahamim Y, Sionov E, Segal E, Carmeli S, et al. Induced production of antifungal naphthoquinones in the pitchers of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes khasiana. J Exp Bot 2010;61(3):911-22.
Gwee PS, Khoo KS, Ong HC, Sit NW. Bioactivity-guided isolation and structural characterization of the antifungal compound, plumbagin, from Nepenthes gracilis. Pharm Biol 2014;52(12):1526-31.
Thao NP, Luyen BT, Koo JE, Kim S, Koh YS, Thanh N, et al. In vitro anti-inflammatory components isolated from the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis (Lour.) Rafarin. Pharm Biol 2015;17:1-7.
Wiart C, Mogana S, Khalifah S, Mahan M, Ismail S, Buckle M, et al. Antimicrobial screening of plants used for traditional medicine in the state of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. Fitoterapia 2004;75(1):68-73.
Majeed S, Afzan M. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Nepenthes spp. and its bactericidal effect. Der Pharm Chem 2016;8(19):279-82.
Meyer B, Ferrigni NR, Putnam JE, Jacobsen LB, Nichols DE, McLaughlin JL. Brine shrimp: A convinient general bioassay for active plant consyituents. J Med Plant Res 1982;45(5):31-4.
How to Cite
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.