A STUDY ON PHYTOCHEMICALS, ANTIMICROBIAL, AND SYNERGISTIC ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA
Keywords:Hibiscus sabdariffa, Synergistic effect, Antimicrobial, Phytochemicals
Objective: The aim of the present study was to screen phytochemical constituents and evaluate antimicrobial and synergistic antimicrobial properties of leaves and stem of Hibiscus sabdariffa.
Methods: The extraction was done by cold maceration method using 80% aqueous methanol. The antimicrobial efficacy and synergistic antimicrobial activity were carried out by disc diffusion assay against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrate, protein, alkaloids, phytosterols, flavonoids, and diterpenes in both the leaves and stem extracts while saponins, phenol, and tannins were found to be present only in the leaf extract. Both the extracts inhibited the tested bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration value of 10 mg/ml. Aqueous methanolic extract of leaf showed higher antibacterial activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa and also exhibited synergistic activity with the antibiotic chloramphenicol against S. aureus.
Conclusion: The present study concludes that H. sabdariffa is a potential source of bioactive components and also provides information on synergistic activity of leaf extract. The results can contribute to the development of potent antibacterial agents.
Verpoorte R. Exploration of nature’s chemodiversity: The role of secondary metabolites as leads in drug development. Drug Discov Today 1998;3:232-8.
Verpoorte R. Pharmacognosy in the new millennium: Lead finding and biotechnology. J Pharm Pharmacol 2000;52:253-62.
O’Neill J. Review on Antimicrobial Resistance Antimicrobial Resistance: Tackling a Crisis for the Health and Wealth of Nations. London: Review on Antimicrobial Resistance; 2014.
Dye C. After 2015: Infectious diseases in a new era of health and development. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2014;369:20130426.
Cowan MM. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin Microbiol Rev 1999;12:564-82.
Cech NB, Junio HA, Ackermann LW, Kavanaugh JS, Horswill AR. Quorum quenching and antimicrobial activity of Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Planta Med 2012;78:1556-61.
Quave CL, Lyles JT, Kavanaugh JS, Nelson K, Parlet CP, Crosby HA, et al. Castanea sativa (European Chestnut) leaf extracts rich in ursene and oleanene derivatives block Staphylococcus aureus virulence and pathogenesis without detectable resistance. PLoS One 2015;10:e0136486.
Quave CL, Estévez-Carmona M, Compadre CM, Hobby G, Hendrickson H, Beenken KE, et al. Ellagic acid derivatives from Rubus ulmifolius inhibit Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and improve response to antibiotics. PLoS One 2012;7:e28737.
Sarkar R, Chaudhary SK, Sharma A, Yadav KK, Nema NK, Sekhoacha M, et al. Anti-biofilm activity of Marula – A study with the standardized bark extract. J Ethnopharmacol 2014;154:170-5.
Talekar SJ, Chochua S, Nelson K, Klugman KP, Quave CL, Vidal JE. 220D-F2 from Rubus ulmifolius kills Streptococcus pneumoniae planktonic cells and pneumococcal biofilms. PLoS One 2014;9:e97314.
Coculescu BI. Antimicrobial resistance induced by genetic changes. J Med Life 2009;2:114-23.
Mahadevan N, Shivali A, Kamboj P. Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.– An overview. Nat Prod Rad 2009;8:77-83.
Piyatida P, Kato-Noguchi H. Evaluation of allelopathic activity of H. sabdariffa L. Adv Biol Res 2011;5:366-72.
Sastri BN. Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. The Wealth of India, A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products. New Delhi: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research; 1959. p. 446.
Nadkari KM. Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. Indian Materia Medica. 3rd ed. Mumbai: Bombay Popular Prakashan; 1976. p. 632.
Fahmi Z. Potential healing effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. flowers on arthritis. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;7:300-3.
Wahyuningsih S, Sukandar S, Sukransoand Lofika D. Antihyperuricemia activity of the ethanol extract of Roselle calyx and its fraction (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn) on male wistar rat. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8: 278 80.
Da-Costa-Rocha I, Bernd B, Hartwig S, Ivo P, Michael H. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. – A phytochemical and pharmacological review. Food Chem 2014;165:424-43.
Sheba LA, Ilakkia A. Anti-obesity effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. – A review. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2016;7:341-5.
Ubani CS, Joshuva PE, Anieke UC. Effects of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces on liver marker enzymes of phenobarbitone-induced adult wistar albino rats. J Chem Pharm Res 2011;3:528-37.
Harborne JB. Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. 1st ed. London: Chapman and Hall Ltd.; 1973. p. 49 188.
Rios JL, Recio MC, Vilar A. Screening methods for natural products with antimicrobial activity: A review of the literature. J Ethnopharmacol 1988;23:127-49.
Collins CH, Lynes PM, Grange JM. Microbiological Methods. 7th ed. Britain: Butterworth Heinemann Ltd.; 1995. p. 175-90.
Chikezie IO. Determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) andminimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) using a novel dilution tube method. Afr J Microbiol Res 2017;11:977-80.
Rakholiya K, Chanda S. In vitro interaction of certain antimicrobial agent in combination with plant extracts against some pathogenic bacterial strains. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2:876-80.
Gurunathan S, Han JW, Kwon DN, Kim JH. Enhanced antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of silver nanoparticles against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Nanoscale Res Lett 2014;9:373.
Bonjar GH, Nik AK, Aghighi S. Antibacterial and antifungal survey in plants used in indigenous herbal-medicine of South East regions of Iran. J Biol Sci 2004;4:405-12.
Zablotowicz RM, Hoagland RE, Wagner SC. Effect of saponins on the growth and activity of rhizosphere bacteria. Adv Exp Med Biol 1996;405:83-95.
Abirami S, Nishanthini K, Poonkothai M. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of the leaf extracts of Eucalyptus globulus. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2017;9:85-9.
Manisha T, Anjali B, Ajeet S. Isolation of antibacterial protein/peptide from Ficus glomerata leaf. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2016;8:24-7.
Edwards-Jones V. Alternative antimicrobial approaches to fighting multidrug-resistant infections. In: Rai M, Kon K, editors. Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts, Essential Oils and their Components. Amsterdam: Elsevier Inc.; 2013. p. 1-9.
Wong SK, Lim YY, Chan EW. Evaluation of antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and antibacterial activities of selected Hibiscus species. Ethnobot Leaflets 2010;14:781-96.
Ajagbonna OP, Oshagbemi HO, Olorede BR. Antibacterial properties of calyx, stem bark and root of Hibiscus sabdariffa. Niger J Nat Prod Med 2001;5:54-5.
Hassan ST, Berchová K, Majerová M, Pokorná M, Švajdlenka E. In vitro synergistic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extract in combination with standard antibiotics against Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates. Pharm Biol 2016;54:1736-40.
Abdelraouf AE, Amany AA, Nedaa AA. Antibacterial, antifungal and synergistic effect of Lawsonia inermis, Punica granatum and Hibiscus sabdariffa. Ann Alquds Med 2011;7:33-41.
Nascimento GG, Locatelli J, Freitas PC, Silva GL. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Braz J Microbiol 2000;31:247-56.
How to Cite
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.