• N. Anusuya
  • P. Durgadevi
  • A. Dhinek
  • S. Mythily


Allium sativum, Cisplatin, Antioxidants, Nephroprotective, Kidney markers


Objectives: The present study investigated the in vivo antioxidant and nephroprotective potential of ethanolic extract of garlic (Allium sativum L.) against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar male rats.

Methods: Nephrotoxicity was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin (5 mg/kg b.w.) on the first day of the experiment. The animals were treated with ethanolic extract of garlic at doses 150 mg/kg b.w. and 300 mg/kg b.w. for four consecutive days. The effect of the higher dose (300 mg/kg b.w.) of garlic extract on normal rats was also studied. The animals were sacrificed on the fifth day and enzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation were assessed in kidney whereas urea, creatinine, uric acid and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were quantified in serum samples.

Results: Cisplatin induction resulted in a decrease in the activities of kidney antioxidants with a concomitant increase in kidney weight, lipid peroxidation along with serum kidney markers like urea, creatinine, uric acid and BUN. Treatment with ethanolic extract of garlic rendered a protective effect by boosting up the antioxidant levels and reverting back the markers to near normalcy. The garlic extract at higher dose also had no significant biochemical alterations in normal rats.

Conclusion: The results from this study reveals that the ethanolic extract of garlic possess a potential nephroprotective property with no aftereffects.

Keywords: Allium sativum, Cisplatin, Antioxidants, Nephroprotective, Kidney markers.


Download data is not yet available.


Hartmann JT, Lipp HP. Toxicity of platinum compounds. Expert. Opin. Pharmacother. 2003; 4: 889–901.

Sastry J, Kellie SJ. Severe neurotoxicity, ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity following high-dose cisplatin and amifostine. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. 2005; 22: 441–445.

Kuhlmann MK, Burkhardt G, Kohler H. Insights into potential cellular mechanisms of cisplatin nephrotoxicity and their clinical application. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 1997; 12: 2478–2480.

Yao X, Panichpisal K, Kurtzman N, Nugent K. Cisplatin Nephrotoxicity: A Review. Am. J. Med. Sci. 2007; 334: 115-124.

Kintzel PE. Anticancer drug-induced kidney disorders. Drug Saf. 2001; 24: 19–38.

Kapoor LD. CRC handbook of ayurvedic medicinal plants. Boca Raton; CRC Press: 1990.

Bradley PR. British herbal compendium: a handbook of scientific information on widely used plant drugs / published by the British Herbal Medicine Association and produced by its Scientific Committee. Bournemouth, Dorset: The Association; 1992.

Rahman MM, Fazlic V, Saad NW. Antioxidant properties of raw garlic (Allium sativum) extract. IFRJ 2012: 19(2): 589-591.

Sowjanya BL, Devi KR, Madhavi D. Modulatory effects of garlic extract against the cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity in human lymphocytes in vitro. J. Environ. Biol. 2009; 30(5): 663-666.

Shrivastava A, Chaturvedi V, Vardan Singh S, Saxena JK, Bhatia G. A mechanism based pharmacological evaluation of efficacy of Allium sativum in regulation of Dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic rats. Asian. J. Pharm. Clin. Res. 2012; 5(3): 123-126.

Sharma A, Sharma V, Kansal L. Amelioration of lead-induced hepatotoxicity by Allium sativum extracts in Swiss albino mice. Libyan J. Med. 2010; 5: 4621.

Mahesar H, Bhutto MA, Khand AA, Narejo NT. Garlic used as an alternative medicine to control diabetic mellitus in alloxan-induced male rabbits. Pak. J. Physiol. 2010; 6(1): 39-41.

Tugbobo OS, Oloyede OI, Daramola AO. Protection by garlic extract against lead induced tissue atrophy in albino rats. Arch. Appl. Sci. Res. 2012; 4(1): 65-71.

Jafari RA, Ghorbanpoor M, Hoshmand Diarjan S. Study on Immunomodulatory activity of dietary garlic in chickens vaccinated against Avian Influenza Virus (Subtype H9 N2). Int. J. Poult. Sci. 2009; 8 (4): 401-403.

Zare A, Farzaneh P, Pourpak Z, Zahedi F, Moin M, Shahabi S, Hassan ZM. Purified aged garlic extract modulates allergic airway inflammation in Balb/c Mice. Iran. J. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2008; 7(3): 133-141.

Raju M, Rudrama Devi K, Minny Jael P. Garlic extract prevents chromium induced cytogenetic damage in somatic cells of mice. J. Res. Environ. Sci. Toxicol. 2012; 1(6): 131-136.

Bedi PS, Priyanka S. Effects of Garlic against 7 – 12, Dimethyl benzanthracene induced toxicity in Wistar albino rats. Asian J. Pharm. Clin. Res. 2012; 5(4): 170-173.

Ankri S, Mirelman D. Antimicrobial properties of allicin from garlic. Microbes Infect 1999; 2: 125−129.

Ross IA. Medicinal plants of the world: Chemical constituents, traditional and modern medicinal uses. Humana Press Inc. 2nd ed. Totowa New Jersey 2003; pp. 33-102

Nuzhatparveen, Shadab GGHA. Mitigation of genotoxic effects of cisplatin through some dietary antioxidants in Human Lymphocyte Chromosomes in vitro. Am-Euras. J. Toxicol. Sci. 2010; 2(4): 220-227.

Bagheri F, Gol A, Dabiri S, Javadi A. Preventive effect of garlic juice on renal reperfusion injury. IJKD 2011; 5(3): 194-200.

Ardalan MR, Ostadrahimi A, Kohsoltani Y, Shoja MM, Ghafari A, Akbari S. Garlic (Allium sativum) prevents radiocontrast nephropathy following coronary angiography. JNRT 2012; 4(1): 34-39.

Naghizadeh B, Boroushaki MT, Mashhadian NV, Mansouri SMT. Protective effects of crocin against cisplatin induced acute renal failure and oxidative stress in rats. Iran. Biomed. J. 2008; 12(2): 93-100.

Das S, Vasisht S, Snehlata C, Das N, Srivastava LM. Correlation between total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolemia. Curr. Sci. 2000; 78: 486-487.

Sinha AK. Colorimetric assay of Catalase. Anal. Biochem. 1972; 47: 389-394.

Ellman GC. Tissue sulfhydryl groups. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1959; 82: 70-77.

Habig WH, Jakoby WB. Glutathione S-transferases. The first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. J. Biol. Chem. 1974; 249: 7130– 7139.

Niehius WG, Samuelssol D. Formation malanodoaldehyde from phospholipid arachidonate during microsomal lipid peroxidation. Eur. J. Biochem. 1968; 6: 126 - 130.

Kawai Y, Nakao T, Kunimura N, Kohda Y, Gemba M. Relationship of intracellular calcium and oxygen radicals to Cisplatin-related renal cell injury. J. Pharmacol. Sci. 2006; 100: 65–72.

Tedeschi M, De Cesare A, Oriana S, Perego P, Silva A, Venturino P, Zunino F. The role of glutathione in combination with cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat. Rev. 1991; 18: 253-259.

Smyth JF, Bowman A, Perren T, Wilkinson P, Prescott RJ, Quinn KJ, Tedeschi M. Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: results of a double-blind, randomised trial. Ann. Oncol. 1997; 8: 569-573.

Mane P, Mayee R, Atre K. Medicinal properties of Allium Sativum (Garlic): A Review. IJPRD 2011; 3(2): 145-150.

Saad SY, Najjar TA, Noreddin AM, Al-Rikabi AC. Effects of gemcitabine on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats: schedule-dependent study. Pharmacol. Res. 2001; 43(2): 193-198.

Wilson EA, Demmig-Adams B. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties of garlic and onions. Nutr. Food Sci. 2007; 37(3): 178 – 183.

Bashandy SA, Al-Wasel SH. Carbontetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in rats: Protective role of vitamin C. J. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 2011; 6: 283.292.

Kim YH, Kim YW, Oh Y, Back NI, Chung SA, Chung HG, Jeong TS, Choi MS, Lee KT. Protective effect of ethanolic extract of the roots of Brassica rapa on cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in LLC-PK1 cells and rats. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2006; 29: 2436-2441.

Joy J, Krishnan C, Nair K. Amelioration of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in Swiss albino mice by Rubia cordifolia extract. J. Cancer. Res. Ther. 2008; 4(3): 111-115.

Lawrence R, Lawrence K. Antioxidant activity of garlic essential oil (Allium Sativum) grown in north Indian plains. Asian. Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 2011; 1(1): S51-S54.

Blumenthal M, Hall T, Goldberg A, Kunz T, Dinda K. The ABC clinical guide to herbs. American Botanical Council, Austin (TX); 2003.

Dembiñska-Kieæ A, Naskalski JW. Laboratory diagnostics with basics of clinical biochemistry. Urban & Partner, Wroclaw; 2002.

Tripathi K. A Review – Garlic, the Spice of Life-(Part –I). Asian J. Research Chem. 2009; 2(1): 8-13.



How to Cite

Anusuya, N., P. Durgadevi, A. Dhinek, and S. Mythily. “NEPHROPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM L.) ON CISPLATIN INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN MALE WISTAR RATS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 6, no. 8, Sept. 2013, pp. 97-100,