• NAVEEN KUMAR BATHULA Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Pratishta Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suryapet, Hyderabad, India.
  • BHIMALENDU CHOWDHURY Roland Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Berhampur, Odisha, India.



Acute toxicity, Biochemical investigation, Turnera aphrodisiaca, subacute toxicity


Objectives: The medications of plant-based, herb-mineral, and animal sources have been used by the conventional medics to maintain well-being and care for diseases ever since ancient times. The current study aimed to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicities of the ethanolic extract of Turnera aphrodisiaca (TA) leaves in albino rats.

Methods: The acute toxicity studies were carried out where the maximum dosage of 5000 mg/kg body mass was used. The outcome reported for 24 h and singly daily for 2 weeks. The rats were weighed and a range of interpretations, for example, behavior, lesions, mortality, or any indication of sickness, was carried out daily once throughout the study. For the subacute study, four groups of ten animals (female rats) received 10% Tween 20 in distilled H2O (as control), and 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg of newly developed extracts, correspondingly, every 24th h orally for about 4 weeks. At the ending of every study, hematological study and biochemical parameters were assessed.

Results: No major variations (p>0.05) were experienced in the comparative organs, body mass, hematological, biochemical parameters, and offensive malfunctions, in comparison to control, with no mortality reported. Hence, the results of the study may direct the outcome that the intermediate-period oral administration of the TA leaves for 4 weeks does not produce toxicity.

Conclusion: Due to these results, we may well wrap up that leaves of TA extract are non-toxic in all doses considered in this study and did not created any obvious signs in the acute and subacute oral toxicity studies.


Download data is not yet available.


Patil UH, Gaikwad DK. Phytochemical profile and antibacterial activity of stem bark of Anogeissus latifolia. Pharm J 2010;2:70-3.

Dias FD, Takahashi CS. Cytogenetic evaluation of aqueous extracts of the medicinal plants Alpinia nutans rose (Zingiberaceae) and Pogostemon heyneanus benth (labitae) on Wistar rats and Allium cepa (Liliaceae) root tip cells. Braz J Genet 1994;17:175-80.

Nath P, Yadav KA. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity assessment of the methanolic extract from leaves of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. in mice. J Int Ethnopharmacol 2015;4:70-3.

Hocking GM. A Dictionary of Terms in Pharmacognosy. 1st ed. Illinois: Charles C. Thomas; 1955.

Parfitt K. Martindale, the Complete Drug Reference. 32nd ed. London: Pharmaceutical Press; 1999.

Pocket WB. Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica. 9th ed. New Delhi: Jain Publisher Private Limited; 1988.

Spencer KC. Tetraphyllin B from Turnera diffusa. Planta Med 1981;43:175-78.

Dominguez XA. Isolation of 5-hydroxy-7, 3’, 4’-trimethoxy ß avone from Turnera diffusa. Planta Med 1976;30:68-71.

Auterhoff H, Hackle HP. Components of damiana drug. Arch Pharm 1968;301:537-44.

Steinmetz EF. Damianae folia. Acta Phyther 1960;7:1-2.

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Guidance Document on Acute Oral Toxicity Testing 420. Paris, France: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development; 2008.

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Guidance Document on Subacute Oral Toxicity Testing 407. Paris, France: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development; 2008.

World Health Organization. General Guidelines for Methodologies on Research and Evaluation of Traditional Medicine. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2000. p. 35.

Das N, Goshwami D, Hasan M, Sharif R, Zahir S. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicity induced by methanol extract of Terminalia citrina leaves in Sprague Dawley rats. J Acute Dis 2015;4:316-21.

Yuet PK, Darah I, Chen Y, Sreeramanan S, Sasidharan S. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of Euphorbia hirta L. methanol extract in rats. Biomed Res Int 2013;182064-71.

Bigoniya P, Sahu T, Tiwari V. Hematological and biochemical effects of sub-chronic artesunate exposure in rats. Toxicol Rep 2015;2:280-8.

Wani SUD, Gangadharappa HV, Ashish NP. Formulation, development and characterization of drug delivery systems based telmisartan encapsulated in silk fibroin nanosphere’s. Int J Appl Pharm 2019;11:247-54.

Kakkar V, Wani SUD, Gautam SP, Qadrie ZL. Role of microspheres in novel drug delivery systems: Preparation methods and applications. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2020;12:1-6.

National Research Council. Toxicity Testing for Assessing Environmental Agents Interim Report. Washington, DC, USA: National Academics Press; 2006.

Kluwe WM. Renal functions tests as indicators of kidney injury in subacute toxicity studies. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1981;57:414-24.

Olorunnisola OS, Bradley G, Afolayan AJ. Acute and subchronic toxicity studies of methanolic extract of Tulbaghia violacea rhizomes in Wistar rats. Afr J Biotechnol 2012;11:14934-40.



How to Cite

BATHULA, N. K., and B. CHOWDHURY. “ASSESSMENT OF ACUTE AND SUBACUTE ORAL TOXICITY ELICITED BY ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF TURNERA APHRODISIACA LEAVES IN ALBINO RATS”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 13, no. 7, July 2020, pp. 144-8, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2020.v13i7.37409.



Original Article(s)