• NORAH RA LNQER Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, Buraydah 51452, KSA.
  • AREEJ AL JASSER Clinical Pharmacy, King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Buraydah, KSA.
  • MUGAHID A. MOBARK Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, Buraydah 51452, KSA.



Antibiotic, Prescription, Resistance, Urinary tract infection


Objectives: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the diseases with a highest prevalence in the world. This study evaluated the antibiotics resistant and the prescription pattern for UTI with the aim to participate as an effective monitoring study that enhances rational antibiotics’ prescription.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study at King Fahad Specialist Hospital from May 2018 to January 2019. We included a total of 306 patients with UTI. 204 patients diagnosed clinically and empirically treated (Group A), 102 patients underwent urine for culture and sensitivity tests (Group B).

Results: UTI showed higher occurrence in female in both Groups A (61%) and B (65%). The mean age was higher in Group B (55.8 years) than Group A (39.44 years). The most commonly prescribed antibiotics for UTI were Trimethoprim + Sulfamethoxazole (TMP+SMX) (56%) and ciprofloxacin (15%). Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated organism (36.3%) followed by Klebsiella pneumonia (30%). Although 41.17% of organisms were sensitive to TMP+SMX, 38.2% were resistant to it. The organisms were sensitive to amikacin in 80.4% and to gentamicin in 61.8% whereas, 61.8% were resistant to ampicillin. Luckily, no resistance was reported neither for nitrofurantoin nor for vancomycin.

Conclusion: The study showed significant resistance to the commonly prescribed TMP+SMX and ciprofloxacin compared to absolute sensitivity to the less prescribed nitrofurantoin. This necessitates special consideration for local susceptibility in empirical therapy.


Download data is not yet available.


Michno M, Sydor A. Urinary tract infections in adults. Przegl Lek 2016;73:504-8.

Gugliotta G, Calagna G, Adile G, Polito S, Saitta S, Speciale P, et al. Is intravesical instillation of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate useful in preventing recurrent bacterial cystitis? A multicenter case control analysis. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2015;54:537-40.

Cunha MA, Assunção GL, Medeiros IM, Freitas MR. Antibiotic resistance patterns of urinary tract infections in a Northeastern Brazilian capital. Rev Inst Med Trop São Paulo 2016;58:2. Available from: 46652016005000201&lng=en&tlng=en.

Cullen IM, Manecksha RP, McCullagh E, Ahmad S, O’Kelly F, Flynn RJ, et al. The changing pattern of antimicrobial resistance within 42 033 Escherichia coli isolates from nosocomial, community and urology patient-specific urinary tract infections, Dublin, 1999-2009. BJU Int 2012;109:1198-206.

Rocha JL, Tuon FF, Johnson JR. Sex, drugs, bugs, and age: Rational selection of empirical therapy for outpatient urinary tract infection in an era of extensive antimicrobial resistance. Braz J Infect Dis 2012;16:115-21.

Salem MM, Magdy M, Alhosiny IM. Distribution of classes 1 and 2 integrons among multi drug resistant E. coli isolated from hospitalized patients with urinary tract infection in Cairo, Egypt. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 2010;4:398-407.

Foxman B. The epidemiology of urinary tract infection. Nat Rev Urol 2010;7:653.

Keyhan H, Sedighi S, Mashayekhi B, Fathi M, Mokhtari M. Community acquired urinary tract infections’ etiological organisms and antibiotics susceptibility patterns. Nephrourol Mon 2017;9:e62146. Available from:

Schito GC, Naber KG, Botto H, Palou J, Mazzei T, Gualco L, et al. The ARESC study: An international survey on the antimicrobial resistance of pathogens involved in uncomplicated urinary tract infections. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2009;34:407-13. Available from: https://www.

Grover ML, Bracamonte JD, Kanodia AK, Bryan MJ, Donahue SP, Warner AM, et al. Assessing adherence to evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and management of uncomplicated urinary tract infection. Mayo Clin Proc 2007;82:181-5. Available from: https://www.

Gupta K, Hooton TM, Naber KG, Wullt B, Colgan R, Miller LG, et al. International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: A 2010 update by the infectious diseases society of America and the European society for microbiology and infectious diseases. Clin Infect Dis 2011;52:e103-20.

Wong CK, Kung K, Au-Doung PL, Ip M, Lee N, Fung A, et al. Correction: Antibiotic resistance rates and physician antibiotic prescription patterns of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in Southern Chinese primary care. PLoS One 2018;13:e0192466.



How to Cite

RA LNQER, N., A. AL JASSER, and M. A. MOBARK. “THE ANTIBIOTICS RESISTANCE AND THE PRESCRIPTIONS’ PATTERN FOR URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS AT KING FAHAD SPECIALIST HOSPITAL”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 13, no. 7, July 2020, pp. 48-51, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2020.v13i7.37486.



Original Article(s)