• MUDDASIR BANDAY Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Sheri Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
  • MAQBOOL WANI Department of Neurology, Sheri Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
  • UMER FAROOQ Department of Neurology, Government Medical College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
  • BILAL PARRA Department of Statistics, Government Degree College, Anantnag, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
  • YOUNIS RATHER Department of Pharmacology, Government Medical College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.



Migraine, Comorbidities, Sociodemography


Objective: Migraine is a primary headache disorder. The study was undertaken to assess correlation between sociodemographic characteristics of migraineurs with their various comorbidities so as to determine most important factors influencing their comorbidity profile.

Methods: A prospective study was conducted between June 2018 –April 2020 in 323 patients suffering from migraine in out-patient department of Neurology. Patients were labeled as migraine on the basis of Simplified Diagnostic Criteria for Migraine. A structured questionnaire was used for evaluation of sociodemographic variables and evidence based approach was adapted to fill psychiatric and comorbidity profiles of patients.

Results: In 323 patients of migraine males were 30 (9.3%) and females 293 (90.7%). Mean age of males is 38.80±17.53 years and of females 35.38±13.29 years, (p=0.307). Most of them were in 21-30 years age group followed by 31-40 years Majority of patients were from district Srinagar followed by Ganderbal. Housewives formed major group of patients followed by students It was seen more in the illiterate class than in literates. 57% patients belonged to lower middle class. Psychiatric comorbidities including anxiety,depression and physical comorbidities like hypertension, hypothyroidism and comorbid pains were common associations. Comorbidities have been compared with mean age of the patients and it was found that psychiatric comorbidities, neuropathic pain, hypothyroidism, hypertension, Type 2 DM, comorbid pains and PCOD were statistically significant, (p=≤0.05).

Conclusion: Most common comorbidities associated with migraine are anxiety, depression, neuropathic pain, hypothyroidism, hypertension, Type 2 DM and comorbid pain. Comorbidities have direct impact on nature of treatment protocol and need to be addressed to achieve outcome based treatment.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

YOUNIS RATHER, Department of Pharmacology, Government Medical College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.



Peter JG, Neil HR. Migraine and other primary headache disorders In: Dennis LK, Anthony SF, Stephen LH, Dan LL, Larry J, Joseph L, editors. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. United States: McGraw Hill; 2016. p. 2586-98.

Steiner TJ, Stovner LJ, Birbeck GL. Migraine: The seventh disabler. J Headache Pain 2013;14:1.

Steiner TJ, Stovner LJ, Vos T. GBD 2015: Migraine is the third cause of disability in under 50s. J Headache Pain 2016;17:104.

Lipton RB, Bigal ME, Diamond M, Freitag F, Reed ML, Stewart WF. Migraine prevalence, disease burden, and the need for preventive therapy. Neurology 2007;68:343-9.

Hawkins K, Wang S, Rupnow M. Direct cost burden among insured US employees with migraine. Headache 2008;48:553-63.

Vos T, Flaxman AD, Naghavi M, Lozano R, Michaud C, Ezzati M, et al. Years lived with disability (YLD) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990-2010: A systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2010. Lancet 2012;380:2163-96.

Blumenfeld AM, Varon SF, Wilcox TK, Buse DC, Kawata AK, Manack A, et al. Disability, HRQoL and resource use among chroniv and episodic migraineures: Results from the international burden of migraine study (IBMS). Cephalalgia 2011;31:301-15.

Schreiber CP, Hutchinson S, Webster CJ, Ames M, Richardson MS, Powers C. Prevalence of migraine in patients with a history of self reported or physician diagnosed “sinus” headache. Arch Intern Med 2004;44:856-64.

Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache society (IHS). The international classification of headache disorders, 3rd edition (beta version). Cephalalgia 2013;33:629-808.

Hepp Z, Dodick DW, Varon SF, Chia J, Matthew N, Gillard P, et al. Persistence and switching patterns of oral migraine prophylactic medications among patients with chronic migraine: A retrospective claims analysis Cephalalgia 2017;37:470-85.

Buse DC, Manack AN, Fanning KM, Serrano D, Reed ML, Turkel CC, et al. chronic migraine prevalence, disability, and sociodemographic factors: Results from the American migraine prevalence and prevention study. Headache 2012;52:1526-41.

Singh T, Sharma S, Nagesh S. Socioeconomic status scales updated for 2017. Int J Res Med Sci 2017;7:3264-7.

Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL, et al. The seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure. JAMA 2003;289:2560-72.

Hanlon P, Byers M, Walker BR, Macdonald HM. Environmental and nutritional factors in disease. In: Colledge NR, Walker BR, Ralston SH, editors. Davidson’s Principles and Practice of Medicine. 21st ed. United Kingdom: Churchill Livingstone; 2010. p. 116-25.

Köseoglu E, Naçar M, Talaslioglu A, Cetinkaya F. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of migraine and tension type headache in 1146 females in Kayseri, Turkey. Cephalalgia 2003;23:381-8.

Lipton RB, Stewart WF, Diamond S, Diamond ML, Reed M. Prevalence and burden of migraine in US: Data from the American migraine study II. Headache 2001;41:646-57.

Hossain MA, Hakim M, Hasan M, Rahman MA, Rashid M, Sagir G, et al. Socio-demographic and comorbidity profiles of migraine patients in a headache clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Dhaka city. J Natl Inst Neurosci 2017;3:48-51.

Stewart WF, Lipton RB, Celentanoo DD, Reed M. Prevalence of migraine headache in United States. Relation to age, income, race and other sociodemographic factors. JAMA 1992;267:64-9.

Stang PE, Osterhaus JT. Imapct of migraine in the United States: Data from the national health interview survey. Headache 1993;33:29-35.

Stang P, Sternfiled B, Sidney S. Migraine heache in prepaid health plan: Ascertainment, demographoes, physiological and behavioural factors. Headache 1996;36:69-76.

Dohrenwend BP, Levav I, Shrout PE, Schwartz S, Naveh G, Link BG, et al. socioeconomic status and psychiatric disorders: The causation-selection issue. Science 1992;255:946-52.

Launer LJ, Terwindt GM, Ferrsri MD. The prevalence and characteristics of migraine in a population cohort: The GEM study. Neurology 1999;53:537-42.

O’Brien B, Goeree R, Streiner D. Prevalence of migraine headaches in Canada: A population based survey. Int J Epidemiol 1994;23:1020-6.

Chen YC, Tang CH, Ng K, Wang SJ. Comorbidity profiles of chronic migraine sufferers in a national database in Taiwan. J Headache Pain 2012;13:311-9.

Breslau N, Lipton RB, Stewart WF, Schultz LR, Welch KM. Comorbidity of migraine and depression: Investigating potential etiology and prognosis. Neurology 2003;60:1308-12.

Buse DC, Manack A, Serrano D, Turkel C, Lipton RB. Sociodemographic and comorbidity profiles of chronic migraine and episodic migraine sufferers. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2010;81:428-32.

Wang SJ, Fuh JL, Chen PK. Comorbidities of migraine. Front Neurol 2010;1:16.

McWilliams LA, Goodwin RD, Cox BJ. Depression and anxiety associated with three pain conditions: Results from a nationally representative sample. Pain 2004;111:77-83.

Scher AI, Terwindt GM, Picavet HS, Verschuren WM, Ferrari MD, Launer LJ. Cardiovascular risk factors and migraine: The GEM population-based study. Neurology 2005;64:614-20.



How to Cite

BANDAY, M., M. WANI, U. FAROOQ, B. PARRA, and Y. RATHER. “SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC AND COMORBIDITY PROFILES OF MIGRAINE PATIENTS: AN OUTPATIENT-BASED STUDY IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 13, no. 8, Aug. 2020, pp. 59-64, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2020.v13i8.38054.



Original Article(s)