RECURRENT APTHOUS STOMATITIS â€“ A REVIEW
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Apthous stomatitis is a most common condition which affects the oral cavity and it is painful. Apthous ulcer is characterized by repeated occurrence of benign and non-contagious mouth ulcers. It can be caused due to triggering of T-cell mediated immune response, by various factors. This condition is very common, affecting about 15-20% of the population. The lesions generally occur on the cheeks, lips, gums, floor and roof of the mouth. There are three different types of apthous stomatitis they are apthous ulcer major, apthous ulcer minor and herptiform ulcers. It can be also termed as recurrent apthous ulcer, recurring oral aphthae, and recurrent apthous ulceration. Informal term is canker sores.
Pharmacotherapy of recurrent aphthous ulcers. http://www.cysonline.org July 17, 2014,
Sodium lauryl sulfate and recurrent aphthous ulcers -A preliminary study . Bente Brokstad Herlofson and Pal Barkvoll . 24 January 1994
Koybasi S, Parlak AH, Serin E, Yilmaz F, Serin D. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis: investigation of possible etiologic factors. Am J Otolaryngol. 2006;27:229â€“232
Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis in Rheumatology Gabriel Riera Matute , Elena Riera Alonso . Reumatol clin.2011;7:323-328
Selecting Topical and Systemic Agents for Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis Drore Eisen, MD, DDS, Cincinnati, Ohio, Denis P. Lynch, DDS, PhD, Memphis, Tennessee VOLUME 68, SEPTEMBER 2001
Crispian scullly The diagnosis and management of recurrent aphthous stomatitis- A consensus approach. JADA, vol 134, February 2003
Jeffrey m. Jacobson et al. Thalidomide for the treatment of oral aphthous ulcers in patients with hiv infection . The new england journal of medicine. Volume 336 number 21
Rivera-Hidalgo F, Shulman JD, Beach MM. The association of tobacco and other factors with recurrent aphthous stomatitis in an US adult population. Oral Dis 2004;10:335-45.
Shulman JD,. An exploration of point, annual, and lifetime prevalence in characterizing recurrent aphthous stomatitis in USA children and youths. J Oral Path Med 2004;33:558-66.
Shashy RG, Ridley MB. Aphthous ulcers: A difficult clinical entity. Am J Otolaryngol 2000;21:305-12.
Mimura MA, Hirota SK, Sugaya NN, Sanches Jr JA, Migliari DA. Systemic treatment in severe cases of recurrent aphthous stomatitis: An open trial.Clinics [Sao Paulo] 2009;64:193-8.
Pongissawaranun W, Laohapand PP. Epidemologic study on recurrent aphthous stomatitis in a Thai dental patient population. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1991;19:52â€“3.
Field EA, Brookes V, Tyldesley WR. Recurrent aphthous ulceration in childrenâ€”a review. Int J Paed Dent 1992;2: 1â€“10.
Fahmy MS. Recurrent aphthous ulcers in a mixed Arab community. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1976;4: 160â€“4.
Embil JA, Stephens RG, Mauriel R. Prevalence of recurrent herpes labialis and aphthous ulcers among young adults on six continents. Can Med Assoc J 1975;113: 630â€“7.
Veloso FT, Carvalho J, Margo F. immune â€“related systemic manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease: prospective study of 792 patients , J clin Gastroenterol 1996;23;29-34
Schwartz T, Langevitz P, Zemer D, Gazit E, Pras M, Livnen A. Bachetâ€™s disease in familial meditrerranean fever; characterization of the association between the two disease. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2000:29;286-95
Marshall GS, Edwards KM, Butler J, Lawton AR. Syndrome of periodic fever pharyngitis and aphthous stomatitis. J Pediatr 1987;11;43-46
Paydas S, Sachin B , Zorludemir S. Sweets syndrome accompanying leukemia; seven cases and review of literature. Leuk Res 2000:24[!];83-86
Oral medicine â€” Update for the dental practitioner Aphthous and other common ulcers C. Scully and D. H. Felix. BRITISH DENTAL JOURNAL VOLUME 199 NO. 5 SEPT 10 2005
Burgess JA, Johnson BD, Sommers E. Pharmacological management of recurrent oral mucosal ulceration. Drugs 1990;39:54-65.
Lin SS, Chou MY, Ho CC, Kao CT, Tsai CH, Wang L, et al. Study of the viral infections and cytokines associated with recurrent aphthous ulceration.Microbes Infect 2005;7:635-44.
Gallo CB, Mimura MA, Sugaya NN. Psychological stress and recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Clinics [Sao Paulo] 2009;64:645-8.
Freedberg IM. Fitzpatrickâ€™s dermatology in general medicine. 5th ed. Vol 1. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill; 1999.
Cotran RS, Kumar V, Robbins SL. Robbins pathologic basis of disease. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1989. p. 817.
Field EA, Allan RB. Oral ulceration: aetiopathogenesis, clinical diagnosis and management in the gastrointestinal clinic.Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003; 18: 949-62.
Shashy RG, Ridley MB. Aphthous ulcers: a difficult clinical entity. Am J Otolaryngol 2000; 21: 389-93.
Sun A, Rhong-Phong H, Chien-Ts C, et al. Some specific human leukocyte antigen [HLA]-DR/DQ haplotypes are more important than individual HLA-DR and â€“DQ phenotypes for the development of mucocutaneous type of BehÃ§etâ€™s disease and for disease shift from recurrent aphthous stomatitis to mucocutaneous type of BehÃ§etâ€™s disease. J Oral Pathol Med 2001; 30: 402-7.
Yilmaz S, Cimen KA. Familial BehÃ§etâ€™s disease. Rheumatol Int 2010; 30: 1107-9. 20.
Karasneh JA, Hajeer AH, Silman A, et al. Polymorphisms in endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene are associated with BehÃ§etâ€™s disease. Rheumatology 2005; 44: 614-7.
RECURRENT APHTHOUS STOMATITIS S.R. Porter C. Scully 0Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 9:306-32 1 [ 1998]
Chapman MS, Cimis RJ, Baughman RD. Lack of association between aphthous ulcers andHelicobacter pylori [Letter]. Arch Dermatol. 1998;134:1634â€“5.
Shohat -Zabarski R, Kalderon S, Klein T, Weinbereger A. Close association of HLA-B51 in persons with recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1992:74;455-8
Ship II Epidemilogic aspects of recurremt aphthous ulceration . Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1972:33;400-6
Ferguson MM, McKay Hart D, Lindsay R, Stephen KW. Progestin theraphy for menstrual related aphthae . Int J Oral Surg 1978:7;463-70
. Dolby AE. Recurrent Mikuliczâ€™s oral aphthaeâ€”their relationship to the menstrual cycle. Br Dent J 10968;124: 359â€“60.
. Segal AL, Katcher AH, Brightman KJ, et al. Recurrent herpes labialis, recurrent aphthous ulcers, and the menstrual cycle. J Dent Res 1974;53:797â€“ 803.
. Ferguson MM, Carter J, Boyle P. An epidemiological study of factors associated with recurrent aphthae in women. J Oral Med 1984;39:212â€“7.
McCartan BE, Sullivan A. The association of menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and menopause with recurrent oral aphthous Barker B. Autoimmune progesterone stomatitis: A review and critique. Obstet Gynecol 1992;80:455â€“ 8.
Moghadam BKH, Hersini S, dermatitis and stomatitis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1998;85:537â€“ 41.
R. Fernandes,et al, The Best Treatment For Aphthous Ulcers An evidence-based study of the literature Department of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine,Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto
Khandwala A, Van Inwegen RG, Alfano MC. 5% amlexanox oral paste, a new treatment for recurrent minor aphthous ulcers, I: clinical demonstration of acceleration of healing and resolution of pain. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral
Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1997;83:222-230.
Meiller TF, Kutcher MJ, Overholser CD, et al. Effect of an antimicrobial mouthrinse on recurrent aphthous ulcerations.Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1991;72:425-429.
Scully C, Porter S. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis: current concepts of etiology, pathogenesis and management. J Oral Pathol Med. 1989;18:21-27.
Scully C, Gorsky M, Lozada-Nur F. The diagnosis and management of recurrent aphthous stomatitis: A consensus approach. J Am Dent Assoc 2003;134:200-7.
Dolby AE, Walker DM . A trial of cromoglycic acid in recurrent aphthous ulceration. Br I Oral Surg 12:292-295.
Potts AJC, Frame JW, Bateman IRM, Asquith P . Sodium cromoglycate toothpaste in the management of aphthous ulceration. Br Dent 1 156:250-251.
Poswillo D, Partridge M . Management of recurrent aphthous ulcers: a trial of carbenoxolone sodium mouthwash. Br Dent I 157:55-57.
Burgess JA, Johnson BD, Sommers E. Pharmacological management of recurrent oral mucosal ulceration. Drugs. 1990;39:54â€“65.
Grimes RM, Lynch DP. Frequently asked questions about the oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS. JAMA HIV/AIDS Information Center. Accessed April 2000: http://www.ama-assn.org/special/hiv/treatmnt/updates/oral.htm#q2.
Guggenheimer J, Brightman VJ, Ship II. Effect of chlortetracycline mouthrinses on the healing of recurrent aphthous ulcers: A double-blind controlled trial. J Oral Therapeut Pharmacol 1968;4:406â€“8.
Graykowski EA, Kingman A. Double-blind trial of tetracycline in recurrent aphthous ulceration. J Oral Pathol 1978;7:376â€“82.
. Denman AR, Schiff AA. Recurrent oral ulceration treatment of recurrent aphthous ulceration of the oral cavity. Br Med J 1979;1:1248 â€“9.
Hayrinen-Immonen R, Sorsa T, Pettila J, et al. Effect of tetracyclines on collagenase activity in patients withrecurrent aphthous ulcers. J Oral Pathol Med 1994;23:269â€“72.
Henricsson V, Axell T. Treatment of recurrent aphthous ulcers with AureomycinÂ® mouthrinse or ZendiumÂ® dentifrice. Acta Odontol Scand 1985;43:47â€“52.
Stephen r. Porter, et al recurrent aphthous stomatitis Â© 2000 by Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved. 0738-081X/00/$â€“see front matter 655 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 1001
Ueta E, Osaki T, Yoneda K, et al. A clinical trial of Azelastine in recurrent aphthous ulceration, with an analysis of its actions on leukocytes. J Oral Pathol Med1994;23:123â€“9.
Hamuryudan V, Yurdakul S, Rosenkaimer F, et al. Inefficacy of topical alpha interferon in the treatment of oral ulcers of Behcetâ€™s syndrome: A randomised, doubleblind trial [letter]. Br J Rheumatol 1991;30:395â€“ 6.
Hamuryudan V, Yurdakul S, Serdaroglu S, et al. Topical alpha interferon in the treatment of oral ulcers in Behcetâ€™s syndrome: A preliminary report. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1990;8:51â€“ 4.
. Eisen D, Ellis CN. Topical cyclosporine for oral mucosal disorders. J Am Acad Dermatol 1990;23:1259â€“63.
. Das SK, Das V, Gulati AK, et al. Deglycyrrhizinated liquorice in aphthous ulcers. J Assoc Physicians India 1989;37:647.
Collier PM, Neill SM, Copeman PW. Topical 5-aminosalicyclic acid: A treatment for aphthous ulcers. Br J Dermatol 1992;126:185â€“ 8.
Taylor LJ, Walker DM, Bagg J. A clinical trial of prostaglandin E2 in recurrent aphthous ulceration. Br Dent J1993;175:125â€“9.
Rattan J, Schneider M, Arber N, Gorsky M, Dayan D. Sucralfate suspension as a treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis. J Intern Med. 1994;236:341-3.
Bruynzeel I, Stoof TJ, Willemze R. Pentoxifylline and skin inflammation. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1998;23:168-172.
. Doherty GM, Jensen JC, Alexander HR, et al. Pentoxifylline suppression of tumor necrosis factor gene transcription. Surgery. 1991;110:192-198.
Chandrasekhar J, Liem AA, Cox NH, et al. Oxypentifylline in the management of recurrent aphthous oral ulcers: an open clinical trial. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1999;87:564-567.
Wahba-Yahav AV. Pentoxifylline in intractable recurrent aphthous stomatitis: an open trial. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1995;33:680-682.
Izquierdo C, Isanta C, Guillen A, et al. Recurrent oral aphthosis. its treatment with colchicine [letter]. Aten Primaria. 1989;6:358-359.
Gatot A, Tovi F. Colchicine therapy in recurrent oral ulcers [letter]. Arch Dermatol. 1984;120:994.
Harris R, Marx G, Gillett M, et al. Colchicine-induced bone marrow suppression: treatment with granulocyte
colony-stimulating factor. J Emerg Med. 2000;18:435-440.
Prussick R, Shear NH. Dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1996;35:346-349.
. Ghigliotti G, Repetto T, Farris A, et al. Thalidomide: treatment of choice for aphthous ulcers in patients seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1993;28:271-272.
Jacobson JM, Greenspan JS, Spritzler J, et al, for thNational Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Thalidomide for the treatment of oral aphthous ulcers in patients with human immunodeficiency
virus infection. N Engl J Med. 1997;336:1487-1493.
Sun A, Chiang C-P, Chiou P-S, et al. Immunomodulation by levamisole in patients with recurrent aphthous ulcers or oral lichen planus. J Oral Pathol Med 1994;23:172â€“7.
. Lehner T, Wilton JMA, Ivanyi L. Double-blind crossovetrial of levamisole in recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Lancet 1976;2:926 â€“9.
. De Meyer J, Degreave M, Clarysse J, et al. Levamisole in aphthous stomatitis: Evaluation of three regimens. Br Med J 1977;1:671â€“ 4.
. Drinnan AJ, Fischman SL. Randomised, double-blind study of levamisole in recurrent aphthous stomatitis. J Oral Pathol 1978;7:414 â€“7.
. Gier RE, George B, Wilson T, et al. Evaluation of the therapeutic effect of levamisole in treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis. J Oral Pathol 1978;7:405â€“13.
. Kaplan B, Cardarelli C, Pinnell SR. Double-blind study of levamisole in aphthous stomatitis. J Oral Pathol 1978; 7:400â€“4.
. Miller MF, Silvert ME, Laster LL, et al. Effect of levamisole on the incidence and prevalence of recurrent aphthous stomatitis: A double-blind clinical trial. J Oral Pathol 1978;7:387â€“92.
. Olsen JA, Silverman S. Double-blind study of levamisole therapy in recurrent aphthous stomatitis. J Oral Pathol
. Schulkind ML, Heim LR, South MA, et al. A case report of the successful treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis with some preparations of orally administered transfer factor. Cell Immunol 1984;84:415â€“21.
. Kaloyannides TM. Treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis with gamma globulin: Report of five cases. J Can Dent Assoc 1971;37:312â€“3.
. Rosenthal SH. Does phenelzine relieve aphthous ulcers of the mouth? N Engl J Med 1984;311:1442.
. Lejonc JL, Fourestie V. Phenelzine in the treatment of aphthous ulcers of the mouth. N Engl J Med 1985;312: