• ABDUL KADER MOHIUDDIN Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Dhaka University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.



catastrophes, COVID-19, civil unrests, inflation, public health, Ukraine conflict, Middle-East crises


Religion, governance, and politics - as well as related topics such as human rights, justice, and so on - have historically caused many of the world’s most significant conflicts, and they continue to do so because these issues are often the most fundamental in the structure of a society. To gain a military advantage, parties to armed conflicts have polluted water, burned crops, cut down forests, poisoned soils, and killed animals over the years. A variety of context factors, particularly socioeconomic conditions, governance, and political factors, interact and play a key role in translating climate change into conflict risks. The present unrest all over the world risks putting more than half of the countries into a crisis of health, economy, and social safety, which remains the most constant threat to human civilization. The security and safety of health-care facilities, workers, and supply lines remain paramount concerns, along with access to health services, technology, and innovation.

Author Biography

ABDUL KADER MOHIUDDIN, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Dhaka University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Assistant Professor, Faculty of Pharmacy


Sabet-Parry R, Guo J. More than Half a Billion People Pushed or Pushed Further into Extreme Poverty due to Health Care Costs. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2021.

Ozawa S, Shankar R, Leopold C, Orubu S. Access to medicines through health systems in low-and middle-income countries. Health Policy Plann 2019;34(Supplement_3):iii1-3.

Yoshizu M. World Bank and WHO: Half the World Lacks Access to Essential Health Services, 100 Million Still Pushed into Extreme Poverty Because of Health Expenses. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017.

Carrington D. Climate Crisis: Past Eight Years were the Eight Hottest Ever, Says UN. London: The Guardian; 2022.

Georgieva K. Facing Crisis upon Crisis: How the World Can Respond. United States: IMF; 2022.

Xia L, Robock A, Scherrer K, Harrison CS, Bodirsky BL, Weindl I, et al. Global food insecurity and famine from reduced crop, marine fishery and livestock production due to climate disruption from nuclear war soot injection. Nat Food 2022;3:586-96.

Henley J. Climate Crisis Could Displace 1.2bn People by 2050, Report Warns. London: The Guardian; 2020.

Zhao Q, Guo Y, Ye T, Gasparrini A, Tong S, Overcenco A, et al. Global, regional, and national burden of mortality associated with non-optimal ambient temperatures from 2000 to 2019: A three-stage modelling study. Lancet Planet Health 2021;5:e415-25.

Kirigia JM, Sambo LG, Aldis W, Mwabu GM. Impact of disaster-related mortality on gross domestic product in the WHO African Region. BMC Emerg Med 2004;4:1.

Smart T. Climate Change Seen as Top Global Threat: Poll. Washington, D.C.: U. S. News; 2022.

Zamir M. Climate Change: Are We Heading Towards Extinction? Uttar Pradesh, India: The Financial Express; 2021.

Dickie G. Floods, Other Water-Related Disasters Could Cost Global Economy $5.6 Trillion by 2050-Report. London, United Kingdom: Reuters; 2022.

Albert JS, Destouni G, Duke-Sylvester SM, Magurran AE, Oberdorff T, Reis RE, et al. Scientists’ warning to humanity on the freshwater biodiversity crisis. Ambio 2021;50:85-94.

National Geographic-Education. Earth’s Freshwater a Guide for Teaching Freshwater in Grades 3 to 8. Washington, D.C., United States: National Geographic Society.

Sullivan BK. Why are Rivers Drying Up? Global Droughts are Turning Waterways to Dust. New York City: Bloomberg News; 2022.

Henley J. Europe’s Rivers Run Dry as Scientists Warn Drought Could Be Worst in 500 Years. London: The Guardian; 2022.

Croker N, Rigdon R, Jones J, Dotto C, Dewan A. The World’s Rivers are Drying Up from Extreme Weather--See How 6 Look from Space. Georgia, United States: CNN; 2022.

Bradsher K, Dong J. China’s Record Drought is Drying Rivers and Feeding Its Coal Habit. New York, United States: The New York Times; 2022.

AFP. 10 Times Normal Rainfall Drives Pakistan Flooding: ESA. New Delhi: New Age Publisher; 2022.

Lee E, Carrivick JL, Quincey DJ, Cook SJ, James WH, Brown LE. Accelerated mass loss of Himalayan glaciers since the Little Ice Age. Sci Rep 2021;11:24284.

Dietz WH. Climate change and malnutrition: We need to act now. J Clin Invest 2020;130:556-8.

Levine B. Autoimmune Disease Incidence Increase Linked to Climate Change. United States:; 2022.

Natur S, Damri O, Agam G. The effect of global warming on complex disorders (mental disorders, primary hypertension, and Type 2 diabetes. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022;19:9398.

Bell JE, Brown CL, Conlon K, Herring S, Kunkel KE, Lawrimore J, et al. Changes in extreme events and the potential impacts on human health. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 2018;68:265-87.

Nogueira LM, Yabroff KR, Bernstein A. Climate change and cancer. CA Cancer J Clin 2020;70:239-44.

UN News. Climate Change Much Deadlier than Cancer in Some Places, UNDP Data Shows. New York, United States: United Nations; 2022.

Khojasteh D, Davani E, Shamsipour A, Haghani M, Glamore W. Climate change and COVID-19: Interdisciplinary perspectives from two global crises. Sci Total Environ 2022;844:157142.

Hauser N, Conlon KC, Desai A, Kobziar LN. Climate change and infections on the move in North America. Infect Drug Resist 2021;14:5711-23.

Nnadi NE, Carter DA. Climate change and the emergence of fungal pathogens. PLoS Pathog 2021;17:e1009503.

Mohiuddin AK. TRACK implementation: A Bangladesh scenario. Cent Asian J Glob Health 2020;9:e416.

D’Amato G, Vitale C, De Martino A, Viegi G, Lanza M, Molino A, et al. Effects on asthma and respiratory allergy of Climate change and air pollution. Multidiscip Respir Med 2015;10:39.

El Khayat M, Halwani DA, Hneiny L, Alameddine I, Haidar MA, Habib RR. Impacts of climate change and heat stress on farmworkers’ health: A scoping review. Front Public Health 2022;10:782811.

Abutaleb Y, Achenbach J. Coronavirus Wave this Fall Could Infect 100 Million, Administration Warns. Washington, D.C.: The Washington Post; 2022.

Mehrl M, Thurner PW. The effect of the Covid-19 pandemic on global armed conflict: Early evidence. Polit Stud Rev 2021;19:286-93.

Ossai EC. COVID-19 and peace in conflict-affected areas. Encyclopedia 2022;2:1678-87.

Ide T. COVID-19 and armed conflict. World Dev 2021;140:105355.

Rubinson E, Hitman G. The effects of covid-19 emergency aid on UN reputation-evidence from Syria, Yemen, and Sudan. J Asian Afr Stud 2022;1-20.

McKay B, Marcus AD, Khan N, Page J. How this Pandemic has Left Us Less Prepared for the Next One. New York: The Wall Street Journal; 2021.

Crow D. Coronavirus Fuels Black America’s Sense of Injustice: Free to Read. England, UK: Financial Times; 2020.

Chen JA, Zhang E, Liu CH. Potential impact of COVID-19-related racial discrimination on the health of Asian Americans. Am J Public Health 2020;110:1624-7.

Gover AR, Harper SB, Langton L. Anti-asian hate crime during the COVID-19 pandemic: Exploring the reproduction of inequality. Am J Crim Justice 2020;45:647-67.

ILO. From Crisis to Opportunity for Sustainable Peace: A Joint Perspective on Responding to the Health, Employment and Peace Building Challenges in Times of COVID-19. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Organization; 2020.

Georgieva K, Sosa S, Rother B. Global Food Crisis Demands Support for People, Open Trade, Bigger Local Harvests. Dhaka, Bangladesh: The Daily Star; 2022.

Agencies. 1 Person Dying of Hunger Every Four Seconds/Warn 238 NGOs from 75 Countries, Urge Decisive Int’l Action to ‘End Spiraling Global Crisis. Dhaka, Bangladesh: The Daily Star; 2022.

UN News. UN Appeals for Record $51.5 Billion to Help 230 Million on the Brink in 2023. New York, United States: United Nations; 2022.

Nicola M, Alsafi Z, Sohrabi C, Kerwan A, Al-Jabir A, Iosifidis C, et al. The socio-economic implications of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19): A review. Int J Surg 2020;78:185-93.

Moyer JD, Verhagen W, Mapes B, Bohl DK, Xiong Y, Yang V, et al. How many people is the COVID-19 pandemic pushing into poverty? A long-term forecast to 2050 with alternative scenarios. PLoS One 2022;17:e0270846.

Tuczyńska M, Staszewski R, Matthews-Kozanecka M, Baum E. Impact of socioeconomic status on the perception of accessibility to and quality of healthcare services during the COVID-19 pandemic among poles-pilot study. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022;19:5734.

Dhaliwal M, Small R, Webb D, Cluver L, Ibrahim M, Bok L, et al. Covid-19 as a long multiwave event: Implications for responses to safeguard younger generations. Br Med J 2022;376:e068123.

Stallard E, Pinnell O, Kelly J. Revealed: Huge Gas Flaring Emissions Never Reported. London, United Kingdom: BBC News; 2022.

Dickie G. Global Wildlife Populations Have Sunk 69% since 1970-WWF Report. London, United Kingdom: Reuters; 2022.

Reddington CL, Conibear L, Robinson S, Knote C, Arnold SR, Spracklen DV. Air pollution from forest and vegetation fires in Southeast Asia disproportionately impacts the poor. Geohealth 2021;5:e2021GH000418.

Zimmer K. Deforestation is Leading to More Infectious Diseases in Humans. United States: Science; 2019.

Beyer A. Biden Environmental Push Doesn’t Include Key Mountaintop Removal Study. Charleston, WV: Mountain State Spotlight; 2022.

Rainforest Foundation Norway. The Disease of Deforestation. Available from:

Münzel T, Hahad O, Daiber A, Landrigan PJ. Soil and water pollution and human health: What should cardiologists worry about? Cardiovasc Res 2022;cvac082.

Chaves LS, Conn JE, López RV, Sallum MA. Abundance of impacted forest patches less than 5 km2 is a key driver of the incidence of malaria in Amazonian Brazil. Sci Rep 2018;8:7077.

Bloomberg News. Hydropower Production Falls as Dams from China to US Hit by Sweeping Drought. New York, United States: Bloomberg News; 2022.

Varadhan S. Analysis: India Power Binges on Coal, Outpaces Asia. London, United Kingdom: Reuters; 2022.

Chen Y. Breaking Views: Ukraine War Helps China’s Coal Addiction Stack Up. London, United Kingdom: Reuters; 2022.

Mandavia M. Climate Change Could Be Double-Edged Sword for Australian Coal. New York: The Wall Street Journal; 2022.

Dvorak P, Hirtenstein A. Europe’s Energy Crisis Threatens to Slow Green Transition. New York: The Wall Street Journal; 2022.

IEA. Global Coal Demand is Set to Return to Its All-Time High in 2022-News. Paris, France: International Energy Agency (IEA); 2022.

Gourinchas PO. Global Economic Growth Slows Amid Gloomy and More Uncertain Outlook. Washington, D.C., United States: International Monetary Fund; 2022.

TBS Report. Shrinking Businesses Ring Recession Alarm in Major Economies. New Delhi: The Business Standard; 2022.

Fairless T. Higher Interest Rates Can Take a Long Time to Bring Down Inflation. New York: The Wall Street Journal; 2022.

Canepa F, Schneider H. Central Banks Raise Rates Again as Fed Drives Global Inflation Fight. London, United Kingdom: Reuters; 2022.

Hole J. Central Banks Will Fail to Tame Inflation Without Better Fiscal Policy, Study Says. London, United Kingdom: Reuters; 2022.

Smialek J. Central Banks Accept Pain Now, Fearing Worse Later. New York: The New York Times; 2022.

Hagstrom A. UK Inflation Matches Us, Soars to Highest Point in 40 Years. New York, United States: Fox Business; 2022.

Hannon P. U.K. Inflation Hits 41-Year High as Recession Looms. New York: The Wall Street Journal; 2022.

Lopez G. Inflation’s 40-Year High. New York: The New York Times; 2022.

Reuters. Japan’s Consumer Prices Spike to Highest Level in 40 Years: Govt Data. New Delhi: Business Standard News; 2022.

Arnold M. German Inflation Hits 40-Year High as ECB President Warns of ‘Supply Shock’. England, UK: Financial Times; 2022.

Alkhalifa MR. France’s Annual Inflation Rate Hits 6.1% in July. United Arab Emirates: Forbes Middle East; 2022.

Indo-Asian News Service. Inflation in Italy Surges by 8.4% to Reach a 37-Year High in August. New Delhi: Business Standard News; 2022.

Bloomberg News. Russian Inflation Spikes To 20-Year Record on War and Sanctions. New York: Bloomberg News; 2022.

Pitel L. Turkish Inflation Hits 20-Year High of 61% as Energy and Food Costs Soar. England, UK: Financial Times; 2022.

AFP-Beijing. China’s Factory Inflation Hits 25-Year High. Dhaka, Bangladesh: The Daily Star; 2021.

Tewari S. Five Reasons Why China’s Economy is in Trouble. London, United Kingdom: BBC News; 2022.

Woo R, Zhang E, Gao L. China’s Economic Wobbles Worsen as Factory, Property Woes Mount. London, United Kingdom: Reuters; 2022.

White E, Lin A. China Risks 1mn COVID Deaths in ‘Winter Wave’, Modelling Shows. England, UK: Financial Times; 2022.

Arnold M. Eurozone Inflation Hits Record High of 10.7%. England, UK: Financial Times; 2022.

Hannon P. Eurozone Inflation Rate Rises to 10.7% as Recession Looms. New York: The Wall Street Journal; 2022.

TBS Report. 6 Major Countries that Went Bankrupt in Recent Times. New Delhi: The Business Standard; 2022.

Mohamed H. After Lebanese Statement, What Does State Bankruptcy Mean? Cairo, Egypt: EgyptToday; 2022.

Harvey F. More than 50 Poor Countries in Danger of Bankruptcy’ Says UN Official. London: The Guardian; 2022.

Reuters. Debt Default: At Least Dozen Countries are in Danger Zone. Uttar Pradesh, India: The Financial Express; 2022.

Mathews AW. Cost of Employer-Provided Health Coverage Passes $20,000 a Year. New York: The Wall Street Journal; 2019.

Lubin D. A Stronger Dollar Might Hit Emerging Economies Harder this Cycle. England, UK: Financial Times; 2022.

Pizzinelli C, Shibata I. Why Jobs are Plentiful While Workers are Scarce. Washington, D.C., United States: International Monetary Fund; 2022.

Englund W. An Energy Crisis is Gripping the World, with Potentially Grave Consequences. Washington, D.C.: The Washington Post; 2021.

Carrière-Swallow Y, Deb P, Furceri D, Jiménez D, Ostry JD. How Soaring Shipping Costs Raise Prices around the World. Washington, D.C., United States: International Monetary Fund; 2022.

Golle V. Supply Chain Latest: How Freight Rates are Adding to Inflation. New York: Bloomberg News; 2021.

Miller R, Curran E. Job Cuts in Tech and Banking Don’t Mean Mass Layoffs in Looming Global Recession. New York: Bloomberg News; 2022.

Bendavid E, Boerma T, Akseer N, Langer A, Malembaka EB, Okiro AA, et al. The effects of armed conflict on the health of women and children. Lancet 2021;397:522-32.

UN News. More than 100 Million Now Forcibly Displaced: UNHCR Report. New York, United States: United Nations; 2022.

Mahase E. UN warns of “devastating” effect of covid-19, conflict, and climate change on women’s and children’s health. Br Med J 2022;379:o2497.

UN News. Global Issues: Children. New York, United States: United Nations; 2019.

Save the Children. 1 in 6 Children Living in Conflict Zones at Risk of Sexual Violence by Armed Groups. London, United Kingdom: Save the Children International; 2021.

Rolander N. Military Spending Passes $2 Trillion as Europe Boosts Defenses. New York: Bloomberg News; 2022.

Jahan S. Covid-19: The Makings of a Third World War. Dhaka, Bangladesh: The Daily Star; 2021.

Ferguson N. Cold War 2 with China and Russia is Becoming WW3. New York: Bloomberg News; 2022.

Mollman S. Wall Street’s ‘Dr. Doom’ Says ‘World War III has Already Effectively Begun’. New York City: Fortune; 2022.

Rosenfeld G. Perspective How Will We Know When It’s World War III? Washington, D.C.: The Washington Post; 2022.

Waheeduzzaman A. Don’t Let World Leaders Put Us through World War III. Dhaka, Bangladesh: The Daily Star; 2022.

Astrov V, Ghodsi M, Grieveson R, Holzner M, Kochnev A, Landesmann M, et al. Russia’s invasion of Ukraine: Assessment of the humanitarian, economic, and financial impact in the short and medium term. Int Econ Econ Policy 2022;19:331-81.

Haque U, Naeem A, Wang S, Espinoza J, Holovanova I, Gutor T, et al. The human toll and humanitarian crisis of the Russia-Ukraine war: The first 162 days. BMJ Glob Health 2022;7:e009550.

Kumar BN, James R, Hargreaves S, Bozorgmehr K, Mosca D, Hosseinalipour AM, et al. Meeting the health needs of displaced people fleeing Ukraine: Drawing on existing technical guidance and evidence. Lancet Reg Health Eur 2022;17:100403.

Dhawan M, Choudhary OP, Priyanka, Saied AA. Russo-Ukrainian war amid the COVID-19 pandemic: Global impact and containment strategy. Int J Surg 2022;102:106675.

United Nations. Report on the Human Rights Situation in Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner; 2022.

Casey C. Disability in Times of Conflict. New York City: Forbes; 2022.

AP. With Europe’s Second-Worst Vaccine Rate, Ukraine Suffers COVID Surge. Lyon, France: Euronews; 2021.

Yakovleva A, Kovalenko G, Redlinger M, Liulchuk MG, Bortz E, Zadorozhna VI, et al. Tracking SARS-COV-2 variants using Nanopore sequencing in Ukraine in 2021. Sci Rep 2022;12:15749.

Seriakova I, Yevtushenko V, Kramarov S, Palatna L, Shpak I, Kaminska T. Clinical course of COVID-19 in hospitalized children of Ukraine in different pandemic periods. Eur Clin Respir J 2022;9:2139890.

Poberezhets V. Healthcare crisis in Ukraine-worrying consequences of the Russian-Ukrainian war. Croat Med J 2022;63:315-6.

Uwishema O, Sujanamulk B, Abbass M, Fawaz R, Javed A, Aboudib K, et al. Russia-Ukraine conflict and COVID-19: A double burden for Ukraine’s healthcare system and a concern for global citizens. Postgrad Med J 2022;98:569-71.

Jankowski M, Gujski M. Editorial: The public health implications for the refugee population, particularly in Poland, due to the war in Ukraine. Med Sci Monit 2022;28:e936808.

Greenaway C, Fabreau G, Pottie K. The war in Ukraine and refugee health care: Considerations for health care providers in Canada. CMAJ Can Med Assoc J 2022;194:E911-5.

Kardas P, Babicki M, Krawczyk J, Mastalerz-Migas A. War in Ukraine and the challenges it brings to the Polish healthcare system. Lancet Reg Health Eur 2022;15:100365.

Klas J, Grzywacz A, Kulszo K, Grunwald A, Kluz N, Makaryczew M, et al. Challenges in the medical and psychosocial care of the paediatric refugee-a systematic review. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022;19:10656.

Popov O, Iatsyshyn A, Kovach V, Artemchuk V, Kameneva I, Taraduda D, et al. Risk assessment for the population of Kyiv, Ukraine as a result of atmospheric air pollution. J Health Pollut 2020;10:200303.

Nchasi G, Mwasha C, Shaban MM, Rwegasira R, Mallilah B, Chesco J, et al. Ukraine’s triple emergency: Food crisis amid conflicts and COVID-19 pandemic. Health Sci Rep 2022;5:e862.

Vanyan R. Over 1,000 Medical Facilities Damaged Since War Start-Health Ministry. Ukraine: Ukrania News; 2022. Available from: [Last accessed on 2023 Jan 14].

Howard S. Ukraine invasion: Safe corridor for medical supplies is urgently needed, says WHO. Br Med J 2022;376:o570.

Guy J, Kesaieva Y, Shelley J, Lapin D, Lister T. Russian Strikes Leave 10 Million Ukrainians without Power as Temperatures Plummet. Georgia, United States: CNN; 2022.

Mckinley JC. With Nearly Half of Ukraine’s Energy Grid Knocked Out, Zelensky Says 17 Regions Face A ‘Difficult Situation’. New York: The New York Times; 2022.

Reuters. Half of Kyiv’s Region to Remain without Power for Days-Governor. London, United Kingdom: Reuters; 2022.

Aipanjiguly S. WHO/Europe and ECDC Report Reveals Increasing Numbers Living with Undiagnosed HIV in the Region. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2022.

Patel SS, Erickson TB. The new humanitarian crisis in Ukraine: Coping with the public health impact of hybrid warfare, mass migration, and mental health trauma. Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2022;1-5.

To LL. China, the USA and the South China Sea conflicts. Secur Dialogue 2003;34:25-39.

Shukla S. What is Nine-Dash Line? The Basis of China’s Claim to Sovereignty over South China Sea. United States: The Print; 2020.

U.S. China Trade Facts. The People’s Republic of China. United States: United States Trade Representative; 2021.

Asian News International. China’s Trade War with US Resulted in Loss of USD 550 Billion: Report. India: The Economic Times; 2022.

Liu L, Huang Y, Jin J. China’s vaccine diplomacy and its implications for global health governance. Healthcare (Basel) 2022;10:1276.

Kay C, Makol MK. India hopes ‘pharma city’ will break China’s grip on drug industry. New York City: Bloomberg News; 2022.

Sadek MA. Price Hike of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients: A Concern for Access to Healthcare. New Delhi: The Business Standard; 2022.

Papageorgiou M, de Melo DD. China as a responsible power amid the COVID-19 crisis: Perceptions of partners and adversaries on twitter. Fudan J Hum Soc Sci 2022;15:159-88.

Zha D. China and the Global Search for Health Security: History, Vaccines, and Governance. China Int Strategy Rev 2021;3:137-53.

Jimenez D. US Pharmacopeia Report Finds High Reliance on Indian Manufacturers for APIs. New York: Pharmaceutical Technology; 2022.

Authenticated US Government Information. 117th Congress 2D Session-H.R. 7121. GovInfo; 2022.

Sud V, McCarthy S. Indian and Chinese Troops Clash on Disputed Border. Georgia, United States: CNN; 2022.

Chatterjee P. Indian pharma threatened by COVID-19 shutdowns in China. Lancet 2020;395:675.

Sharma DC. India-China border standoff raises concerns on drug supplies. Lancet Oncol 2020;21:1408-9.

Guerin PJ, Singh-Phulgenda S, Strub-Wourgaft N. The consequence of COVID-19 on the global supply of medical products: Why Indian generics matter for the world? F1000Res 2020;9:225.

Buddhavarapu R. India wants to be the ‘pharmacy of the world’. But first, it must wean itself from China. Mumbai, India: CNBC; 2022.

Zhang T. Strengthening crisis management, the most urgent task in current China-US and China-Japan security relations. China Int Strategy Rev 2021;3:34-55.

Cannon BJ, Rossiter A. Locating the quad: Informality, institutional flexibility, and future alignment in the Indo-Pacific. Int Polit 2022. Available from:

Wang W. Opportunities and challenges facing China’s economic “external circulation”. China Int Strategy Rev 2022;4:108-28.

Kokumo N. Japan Bolsters Pharmaceutical Production to Avoid Overdependence on China. JAPAN Forward; 2020.

Shepherd C, Wu PL. Taiwan, missiles and spying set to be China’s priorities under new Xi term. Washington, D.C.: The Washington Post; 2022.

Tang D. Xi Jinping Claims China Wants to ‘Get Along’ with Biden as Tensions Rise Over Taiwan. New York: World the Times; 2022.

Heijmans P, Wang C, Ellis S. Taiwan Tensions Raise Alarms over Risks to World’s Subsea Cables. New York: Bloomberg News; 2022.

Wintermeyer L. The Chip Company in Taiwan You’ve Never Heard of that Powers the Devices in Your Life-TSMC. New York City: Forbes; 2022.

Cheng E. China Needs Taiwan’s Biggest Chipmaker-More than the Other Way Around. Mumbai, India: CNBC; 2022.

Sutradhar KB, Sumi CD. Implantable microchip: The futuristic controlled drug delivery system. Drug Deliv 2016;23:1-11.

AP. China Blocks Some Taiwan Imports but Avoids Chip Disruptions. Washington, D.C.: US News; 2022.

Mnatsakanyan G. Heatwave, Drought and War Leave Nagorno-Karabakh Short of Water. United States: Eurasianet; 2021.

Khurshudyan I, Cunningham E, Berger M. The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan, Explained. Washington, D.C.: The Washington Post; 2022.

Kazaryan AM, Edwin B, Darzi A, Tamamyan GN, Sahakyan MA, Aghayan DL, et al. War in the time of COVID-19: Humanitarian catastrophe in Nagorno-Karabakh and Armenia. Lancet Glob Health 2021;9:e243-4.

Shoib S, Arif N, Nahidi M, Rumiyya K, Swed S, Armiya’u AY. Nagorno-Karabakh conflict: Mental health repercussions and challenges in Azerbaijan. Asian J Psychiatry 2022;73:103095.

Cookman L. In Armenia, Why are Just 15 Percent Fully Vaccinated? Doha, Qatar: Al Jazeera; 2021.

OECD. COVID-19 Crisis Response in Eastern Partner Countries. Paris, France: OECD; 2020.

IMF. Middle East and Central Asia Dept. Republic of Azerbaijan: 2021 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; and Staff Report. IMF eLibrary; 2021.

Dero QY, Yari E, Charrahy Z. Global warming, environmental security and its geo-economic dimensions case study: Caspian Sea level changes on the balance of transit channels. J Environ Health Sci Eng 2020;18:541-57.

World Bank/ADB. Climate Risk Country Profile Armenia. Washington, D.C., United States: Climate Knowledge Portal World Bank; 2021.

Reuters. Kyrgyz Leader Urges Calm after Deadly Conflict with Tajikistan. Georgia, United States: CNN; 2022.

Davies A. Kyrgyzstan-Tajikistan Border Clashes Claim Nearly 100 Lives. London, United Kingdom: BBC News; 2022.

Tompson W, Lecomte G, Pretet A, Mackle L. Covid-19 Crisis Response in Central Asia. Paris, France: OECD; 2020.

Gotsadze G, Mirzikashvili N, Kekelidze D, Kalandarishvili S, Kalandadze L, Abiatari I, et al. The state of public health education and science during and after the fall of the soviet union: Achievements, remaining challenges, and future priorities. Front Public Health 2022;10:871108.

AP. Iran Raises Prices Of Food Staples, Stirring Panic And Anger. United States: U.S. News; 2022.

Reuters. Soaring Bread Prices Spark Protests and Shop Fires in Iran, IRNA Reports. London, United Kingdom: Reuters; 2022.

Javadi A, Ghahremanzadeh M, Sassi M, Javanbakht O, Hayati B. Economic evaluation of the climate changes on food security in Iran: Application of CGE model. Theor Appl Climatol 2022;1-19.

Mousavi A, Ardalan A, Takian A, Ostadtaghizadeh A, Naddafi K, Bavani AM. Climate change and health in Iran: A narrative review. J Environ Health Sci Eng 2020;18:367-78.

Cooper K, English J. UNICEF Calls for the Protection of Children against All Forms of Violence in Iran Amid Public Unrest. New York, United States: UNICEF; 2022.

Kokabisaghi F. Assessment of the effects of economic sanctions on Iranians’ right to health by using human rights impact assessment tool: A systematic review. Int J Health Policy Manag 2018;7:374-93.

Bastani P, Dehghan Z, Kashfi SM, Dorosti H, Mohammadpour M, Mehralian G. Challenge of politico-economic sanctions on pharmaceutical procurement in Iran: A qualitative study. Iran J Med Sci 2022;47:152-61.

Asadi‐Pooya AA, Nazari M, Damabi NM. Effects of the international economic sanctions on access to medicine of the Iranian people: A systematic review. J Clin Pharm Ther 2022;47:1945-51.

Mirzaei H, Abdi Z, Ahmadnezhad E, Gohrimehr M, Abdalmaleki E, Alvandi R, et al. Health status in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Middle East and North Africa countries: Implications for global health. Iran J Public Health 2020;49:86-95.

Essar MY, Ashworth H, Nemat A. Addressing the humanitarian crisis in Afghanistan through $10 billion Afghani assets: What are the challenges and opportunities at hand? Global Health 2022;18:74.

Islam Z, Kokash DM, Babar MS, Uday U, Hasan MM, Rackimuthu S, et al. Food security, conflict, and COVID-19: Perspective from Afghanistan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021;106:21-4.

Hameed MA, Rahman MM, Khanam R. Assessing the asymmetric war-growth nexus: A case of Afghanistan. PLoS One 2022;17:e0272670.

Hussaini SJ, Ali SH, Rahmat ZS, Islam Z, Tharwani ZH. Mental health impacts of earthquake on Afghans amidst humanitarian crisis. Ann Med Surg 2022;81:104521.

Walraven G, Yousofzai Y, Mirzazada S. The World Bank’s health funding in Afghanistan. Lancet 2021;398:1128.

Asady A, Sediqi MF, Habibi SS. The fourth wave of the COVID-19 in Afghanistan: The way forward. Infect Drug Resist 2022;15:3369-71.

Masood W, Aquil S, Ullah H, Nadeem A, Mehmood H, Islam Z, et al. Impact of climate change on health in Afghanistan amidst a humanitarian crisis. J Clim Change Health 2022;6:100139.

Nafeh F, Fusigboye S, Sornpaisarn B. Understanding injecting drug use in Afghanistan: A scoping review. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2022;17:65.

World Bank Group. By the Numbers: The Cost of War and Peace in the Middle East. Washington, D.C., United States: World Bank Group; 2016.

Tin D, Fares S, Al Mulhim M, Ciottone GR. Terrorist attacks in the Middle East: A counter-terrorism medicine analysis. Prehosp Disaster Med 2022;1-5.

English J, Oweis S. Violence, Conflict and Unrest Robs Nearly 580 Children of their Lives in the Middle East and North Africa since Start of Year. New York, United States: UNICEF; 2022.

Norlén TC. Middle East pre-existing conditions: Regional security after Covid-19. Middle East Policy 2022;29:104-24.

Ahmed SH, Nashwan AJ. Cholera outbreak amid civil war: A public health crisis in Syria. J Infect Public Health 2022;15:1484-5.

Alhaffar MH, Janos S. Public health consequences after ten years of the Syrian crisis: A literature review. Global Health 2021;17:111.

Butt MS, Tharwani ZH, Muzzamil M, Rafi HM. Maternal mortality and its prominence in the Syrian Arab Republic: Challenges, efforts, and recommendations. Ann Med Surg 2022;82:104584.

Khawaldah H, Alzboun N. Socio-economic and environmental impacts of Syrian Refugees in Jordan: A Jordanians’ perspective. Heliyon 2022;8:e10005.

Al Qaralleh AS. Jordan and Syrian humanitarian refugees’ dilemma: International law perspective. Heliyon 2022;8:e09377.

Al-Ahdal T, Farahat RA. The urgency of suicide prevention in Yemen: Challenges and recommendations-correspondence. Int J Surg 2022;106:106924.

UNHCR. Yemen Crisis Explained. Geneva, Switzerland: The UN Refugee Agency; 2022.

Garber K, Fox C, Abdalla M, Tatem A, Qirbi N, Lloyd-Braff, et al. Estimating access to health care in Yemen, a complex humanitarian emergency setting: A descriptive applied geospatial analysis. Lancet Glob Health 2020;8:e1435-43.

Hashim HT, Miranda AV, Babar MS, Essar MY, Hussain H, Ahmad S, et al. Yemen’s triple emergency: Food crisis amid a civil war and COVID-19 pandemic. Public Health in Pract 2021;2:100082.

Rahmat ZS, Islam Z, Mohanan P, Kokash DM, Essar MY, Hasan MM, et al. Food insecurity during COVID-19 in Yemen. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2022;106:1589-92.

Sapir DG, Ogbu JT, Scales SE, de Almeida MM, Donneau AF, Diep A, et al. Civil war and death in Yemen: Analysis of smart survey and ACLED data, 2012-2019. PLOS Global Public Health 2022;2:1-16.

AlKarim T, Abbara A, Attal B. Armed conflict alone does not explain the devastation of Yemen’s health system. BMJ Global Health 2021;6:e004740.

Saleh EA, Haddadin RN, Saleh B, Elayeh E. Changes in drug demand when a pandemic coincides with other outbreaks in a war zone country: A cross-sectional pilot study. J Pharm Policy Pract 2022;15:89.

Dureab F, Al-Sakkaf M, Ismail O, Kuunibe N, Krisam J, Müller O, et al. Diphtheria outbreak in Yemen: The impact of conflict on a fragile health system. Confl Health 2019;13:19.

Chehayeb K. Explainer: Why can’t Lebanon Elect a President? Washington, D.C.: The Washington Post; 2022.

England A, Jalabi R. Lebanon’s Banks to Close ‘Indefinitely’ after Heists by Angry Depositors. England, UK: Financial Times; 2022.

Reuters. At War for Decades, Lebanon and Israel Agree a Rare Compromise. London, United Kingdom: Reuters; 2022.

Dahham J, Kremer I, Hiligsmann M, Hamdan KM, Nassereddine A, Evers SM, et al. Valuation of costs in health economics during financial and economic crises: A case study from Lebanon. Appl Health Econ Health Policy 2022;1-8.

UNHCR. Lebanon at a Glance. Geneva, Switzerland: UNHCR; 2022.

Daily Mirror. SL Ranks 5th among 10 Countries with Highest Food Price Inflation: World Bank. London, United Kingdom: Daily Mirror; 2022.

Inman P. Food Prices Soaring in Developing World Amid Ukraine Crisis, World Bank Finds. London: The Guardian; 2022.

Gebeily M. Cholera outbreak hits Syrian refugees sheltering in camps in Lebanon. United Kingdom: Reuters; 2022.

Salih ZM. Sudan Faces’Generational Catastrophe’ as Millions of Children Miss School. London: The Guardian; 2022.

UNHCR. UNHCR Warns of Surging Needs in Sudan amid Skyrocketing Prices and Gaps in Humanitarian Funding. Geneva, Switzerland: UNHCR; 2022.

Sirgany SE, Elbagir N, Abdullah Y. Sudan’s President Bashir Forced Out in Military Coup. Georgia, United States: CNN; 2019.

Shoib S, Elmahi OK, Siddiqui MF, Altamih RA, Swed S, Ahmed EM. Sudan’s unmet mental health needs: A call for action. Ann Med Surg 2022;78:103773.

UNHCR. Thousands Displaced by Escalating Conflict in South Sudan’s Greater Upper Nile Region. Geneva, Switzerland: UNHCR; 2022.

Lutwama GW, Sartison LJ, Yugi JO, Nehemiah TN, Gwang ZM, Kibos BA, et al. Health services supervision in a protracted crisis: A qualitative study into supportive supervision practices in South Sudan. BMC Health Services Res 2022;22:1249.

Anib VA, Achiek MM, Ndenzako F, Olu OO. South Sudan’s road to universal health coverage: A slow but steady journey. Pan Afr Med J 2022;42(Suppl 1):1.

Elagali A, Ahmed A, Makki N, Ismail H, Ajak M, Alene KA, et al. Spatiotemporal mapping of malaria incidence in Sudan using routine surveillance data. Sci Rep Nat 2022;12:14114.

Elahssan R, Shariff F, OGrady M, Yousif TI. Telehealth application in Sudan: Requirements and potential benefits. Sudan J Paediatr 2022;22:5-9.

St John RB. The changing libyan economy: Causes and consequences. Middle East J 2008;62:75-91.

Raghavan S. In Battle for Tripoli, Medical Workers are Becoming Casualties. Washington, D.C.: The Washington Post; 2019.

Iwendi GC, Alsadig AM, Isa MA, Oladunni AA, Musa MB, Ahmadi A, et al. COVID-19 in a shattered health system: Case of Libya. J Glob Health 2021;11:03058.

Elhadi M, Msherghi A. COVID-19 and civil war in Libya: The current situation. Pathog Global Health 2020;114:230-1.

Allen LN, Aghilla M, Kak M, Loffreda G, Wild CE, Hatefi A, et al. Conflict as a macrodeterminant of non-communicable diseases: The experience of Libya. BMJ Global Health 2022;7(Suppl 8):e007549.

BBC World Service. The Story of Africa. London, United Kingdom: BBC World Service. Available from:

Ahronhem A. Thousands of Airstrikes Carried Out by Israel in Past Five Years. Jerusalem: The Jerusalem Post; 2022.

The New Arab Staff. Israel Dropped 5,500 Bombs on Arab States in Just Five Years. London, United Kingdom: The New Arab; 2022.

Dahdal Y, Davidovitch N, Gilmont M, Lezaun J, Negev M, Sandler D, et al. Lessons of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict for public health: The case of the COVID-19 vaccination gap. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021;18:11292.

Alkhaldi M, Coghlan R, Miller S, Basuoni AA, Tanous O, Asi YM. State accountability for the good health of palestinians has failed: What can the global health community do next? Health Hum Rights J 2022;24:77-84.

World Health Organization. Occupied Palestine Territory. Right to Health 2018. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2019.

Asi YM, Tanous O, Wispelwey B, AlKhaldi M. Corrigendum to: Are there ‘two sides’ to attacks on healthcare? Evidence from Palestine. Eur J Public Health 2021;32:161-1.

Williams CA, Hanan NP, Neff JC, Scholes RJ, Berry JA, Denning AS, et al. Africa and the global carbon cycle. Carbon Balance Manage 2007;2:3.

Gruzd S, Bosman I, Benkenstein A, van Staden C. Africa: Key Issues to Track in 2022. South Africa: SAIIA; 2022.

Reuters. Africa Losing Up to 15% of GDP Growth to Climate Change, African Development Bank Says. London, United Kingdom: Reuters; 2022.

Pearce O, Andrijevic M. The Cost to Africa-Drastic Economic Damage from Climate Change. Irish Charity Fighting Global Poverty-Christian Aid Ireland; 2022.

Anugwom EE. Reflections on climate change and public health in Africa in an era of global pandemic. In: Contemporary Developments and Perspectives in International Health Security. Vol. 2. London:IntechOpen; 2021.

Atwoli L, Erhabor GE, Gbakima AA, Haileamlak A, Ntumba JM, Kigera J, et al. COP27 climate change conference: Urgent action needed for Africa and the world. Br Med J 2022;379:o2459.

Lakhani N. Climate Crisis Will Have Huge Impact on Africa’s Economies, Study Says. London: The Guardian; 2022.

Phillips MM. A Quarter of Africans Face Food-Security Crisis Partly Due to Ukraine War, Red Cross Says. New York: The Wall Street Journal; 2022.

Sacko J, Mayaki I. How the Russia-Ukraine conflict impacts Africa: Africa Renewal. New York, United States: United Nations; 2022.

Holder J. Tracking Coronavirus Vaccinations Around the World. New York: The New York Times; 2022.

Njoh AA, Saidu Y, Bachir HB, et al. Impact of periodic intensification of routine immunization within an armed conflict setting and COVID-19 outbreak in Cameroon in 2020. Confl Health 2022;16:29.

Bylicka-Szczepanowska E, Korzeniewski K. Asymptomatic Malaria Infections in the Time of COVID-19 Pandemic: Experience from the Central African Republic. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022;19(6):3544.

Okiro EA, Ayieko P. Childhood mortality during conflicts in Africa. Lancet 2018;392:804-5.

O’Loughlin J, Linke AM, Witmer FD. Effects of temperature and precipitation variability on the risk of violence in sub-Saharan Africa, 1980-2012. Proc Natl Acad Sci (USA) 2014;111:16712-7.

Burke MB, Miguel E, Satyanath S, Dykema JA, Lobell DB. Warming increases the risk of civil war in Africa. Proc Natl Acad Sci (USA) 2009;106:20670-4.

Cappelli F, Conigliani C, Consoli D, Costantini V, Paglialunga E. Climate change and armed conflicts in Africa: Temporal persistence, non-linear climate impact and geographical spillovers. Econ Polit 2022. Available from:

Ikoku O. How climate change fuels conflicts in West Africa economy and ecology. Int Polit Soc 2022. Available from: [Last accessed 2023 Jan 14].

Chol C, Negin J, Garcia-Basteiro A, Gebrehiwot TG, Debru B, Chimpolo M, et al. Health system reforms in five sub-Saharan African countries that experienced major armed conflicts (wars) during 1990-2015: A literature review. Glob Health Action 2018;11:1517931.

Ahmed A, Ali Y, Siddig EE, Hamed J, Mohamed NS, Khairy A, et al. Hepatitis E virus outbreak among Tigray war refugees from Ethiopia, Sudan. Emerg Infect Dis 2022;28:1722-4.

Tegegne MD, Melkam M, Adane T, Getawa S. COVID-19 preventive practice and associated factors in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Public Health Pract (Oxf) 2022;4:100329.

Berhe E, Tesfay B, Teka H. Vicarious trauma on the hemodialysis healthcare workers in the besieged Ethiopia’s Tigray region: A call to action. BMC Med 2022;20:431.

Sharif S. Analysis Ethiopia’s Peace May Depend on Post-Conflict Plans for Tigray Soldiers. Washington, D.C.: The Washington Post; 2022.

Wall LL. The siege of Ayder hospital: A cri de coeur from Tigray, Ethiopia. Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg 2022;28:e137-41.

Davies L. Tigray: Almost One in Three Children Under Five Malnourished, Un Says. London: The Guardian; 2022.

Abebe HT, Ashebir MM, Ebrahim MM, Zelelow YB, Bezabih AM, Tefere GR, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients in Northern Ethiopia: A retrospective cohort study. Infect Drug Resist 2022;15:3579-88.

Gesesew HA, Berhe KT, Gebretsadik S, Abreha M, Haftu M. Fistula in war-torn Tigray: A call to action. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022;19:15954.

Gholami M, Fawad I, Shadan S, Rowaiee R, Ghanem H, Khamis AH, et al. COVID-19 and healthcare workers: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Infect Dis 2021;104:335-46.

Anderson T. Stopping attacks on health care. Bull World Health Organ 2022;100:470-1.

Macaulay C, Soy A. Ethiopia’s Tigray Conflict: Truce Agreed. London, United Kingdom: BBC News; 2022.

CDC. 2014-2016 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa. Georgia, United States: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2019.

Sun J, Uwishema O, Kassem H, Abbass M, Uweis L, Rai A, et al. Ebolavirus outbreak returns to the Democratic Republic of Congo: An urgent rising concern. Ann Med Surg 2022;79:103958.

Murhima’Alika CC, Balemba GM, Lyabayungu PM,Mulume’oderhwa GM, Munthali G, Owino V, et al. Human milk output among mothers previously treated for severe acute malnutrition in childhood in Democratic Republic of Congo. BMC Nutr 2021;7:61.

Al Jazeera. African Leaders Agree on ‘Immediate Ceasefire’ in Eastern DRC. Conflict News. Doha, Qatar: Al Jazeera; 2022.

AFP. DR Congo Exodus of 300,000 ‘may Hamper Ebola Battle’. London: BBC News; 2019.

AFP. Myanmar Rebels Accuse Junta of Rakhine Village Killings. New Delhi: New Age; 2022.

Bearak M. Bangladesh is Now Home to Almost 1 Million Rohingya Refugees. Washington, D.C.: The Washington Post; 2017.

Rashid M, Iqbal F. 1.2M Rohingyas Entered BD Since 1942. Bangladesh: The Daily Observer; 2017.

UN News. Response Plan Launched to Support 1.4 Million Rohingya and Bangladeshis. New York, United States: United Nations; 2022.

Ismail M, Hussain MF, Al Hasan MA, Kamal AM, Rahman M, Hasan MJ. Health problems among Forcibly Displaced Myanmar Nationals (FDMNs) admitted to the Medicine ward of Cox’s Bazar Medical College Hospital. J Migr Health 2022;6:100123.

Mohiuddin AK. An extensive review of patient satisfaction with healthcare services in Bangladesh. Patient Exp J 2020;7:59-71.

Ali M, Rahman MA, Njuguna H, Rahman S, Hossain R, Sayeed A, et al. High prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infections among Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh: A growing concern for the refugees and the host communities. Clin Liver Dis (Hoboken) 2022;19:1-6.

Palit S, Yang H, Li J, Khan MA, Hasan MJ. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of Rohingya refugees with pre-existing health problems in Bangladesh. Confl Health 2022;16:10.

Chowdhury SA, McHale T, Green L, Mishori R, Pan C, Fredricks I. Health professionals’ perspectives on the impact of COVID-19 on sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and SGBV services in Rohingya refugee communities in Bangladesh. BMC Health Serv Res 2022;22:743.

Alam AM. Providing COVID-19 vaccination to refugees and displaced people: Lessons from the vaccine roll-out for the Rohingya refugees in Cox’s bazaar, Bangladesh. Lancet Reg Health Southeast Asia 2022;100120.

Reuters. Rohingya Crisis Fund is ‘Well Short of Needs’ UN Refugee Agency. Arab News. London, United Kingdom: Reuters; 2022.

Stoken JM. Suffering in silence: Sexual and gender-based violence against the Rohingya community and the importance of a global health response. J Glob Health 2020;10:020324.

Staff Correspondent. Rohingyas’ Illegal Drug Trade Poses a Threat: Discussion. New Delhi: New Age; 2022.

Chowdhury Z, Lion A. Cox’s Bazar: Drugs, Guns, Murders and the Untouchables. New Delhi: The Business Standard; 2022.

Indo-Asian News Service. Rohingyas Engaged in Arms, Drug, Big Threat to Bangladesh: PM Hasina. New Delhi: Business Standard News; 2022.

Sawicka B. Post-Harvest Losses of Agricultural Produce. Cham: Springer; 2019. p. 1-16.

Mohiuddin AK. Mini-review on domination of pollutant residues among food products: Perspective of south-East Asian countries. J Food Agric 2019;12:1-6.

Salter SJ. The food-borne identity. Nat Rev Microbiol 2014;12:533.

World Health Organization. Food Safety. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2022.

Lee H, Yoon Y. Etiological agents implicated in foodborne illness world wide. Food Sci Anim Resour 2021;41:1-7.

Yeasmin D, Baker M, Kamal AHM, Islam MS, Rahman M, Winch PJ et al. Exploring customers’ perceptions of food adulteration at bazaars and supermarkets in Dhaka, Bangladesh. BMC Public Health 2022;1-28.

Spink J, Elliott C, Dean M, Speier-Pero C. Food fraud data collection needs survey. NPJ Sci Food 2019;3:8.

Mohiuddin AK. Health hazards with adulterated spices: Save the “Onion Tears.” Innov J Med Sci 2020;8:8-11.

Victor D. World Population Reaches 8 Billion, U.N. Says. New York: The New York Times; 2022.

O’Grady S, Mahfouz HF. As Climate Change Worsens, Egypt is Begging Families to Have Fewer Kids. Washington, D.C.: The Washington Post; 2022.

Carnegie ER, Inglis G, Taylor A, Bak-Klimek A, Okoye O. Is population density associated with non-communicable disease in western developed countries? A systematic review. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022;19:2638.

Jamal Y, Gangwar M, Usmani M, Adams AE, Wu CY, Nguyen TH, et al.Identification of thresholds on population density for understanding transmission of COVID-19. GeoHealth 2022;6:e2021GH000449.

Md Iderus NH, Singh SS, Ghazali SM, Ling CY, Vei TC, Gill BS, et al. Correlation between population density and COVID-19 cases during the third wave in Malaysia: Effect of the delta variant. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022;19:7439.

Mulugeta A, Gebregziabher M. Saving children from man-made acute malnutrition in Tigray, Ethiopia: A call to action. Lancet Glob Health 2022;10:e469-70.

Gutiérrez-Romero R. Conflicts increased in Africa shortly after COVID-19 lockdowns, but welfare assistance reduced fatalities. Econ Model 2022;116:105991.

World Health Organization. Regional Committee for Europe. EUR/RC69/14 Rev.1 Copenhagen, 16-19 September 2019: Draft who European Roadmap for Implementation of Health Literacy Initiatives through the Life Course. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2019.

Emerson MR, Buckland S, Lawlor MA, Dinkel D, Johnson DJ, Mickles MS, et al. Addressing and evaluating health literacy in mHealth: A scoping review. mHealth 2022;8:33.

Public Health England. Local Action on Health Inequalities-Improving Health Literacy to Reduce Health Inequalities (Practice Resource Summary). England: Public Health England; 2015.

Shebehe J, Montgomery S, Hansson A, Hiyoshi A. Low health literacy and multiple medications in community-dwelling older adults: A population-based cohort study. BMJ 2022;12:e055117.

Kyabaggu R, Marshall D, Ebuwei P, Ikenyei U. Health literacy, equity, and communication in the COVID-19 era of misinformation: Emergence of health information professionals in infodemic management JMIR Infodemiology 2022;2:e35014.

Ellender CM, Boyde M, Scott IA. Health literacy assessment in the clinic: Benefits, pitfalls and practicalities. Aust J Prim Health 2022;28:365-70.

Ibrahim H, Nair SC. Comment on health literacy: The common denominator of healthcare progress. Patient 2021;14:869-70.

Li Y, Lv X, Liang J, Dong H, Chen C. The development and progress of health literacy in China. Front Public Health 2022;10:1034907.

Meherali S, Punjani NS, Mevawala A. Health literacy interventions to improve health outcomes in low-and middle-income countries. Health Lit Res Pract 2020;4:e251-66.

Mohiuddin AK. Our Low Health Literacy Needs Urgent Fixing. Dhaka, Bangladesh: The Daily Star; 2022.

Bhardwaj T. Ambition to Achieve Net-Zero Emissions by 2050 Would be Paved through an All-Electric All-Digital world. Uttar Pradesh, India: The Financial Express; 2021.

Costa C Jr., Wollenberg E, Benitez M, Newman R, Gardner N, Bellone F. Roadmap for achieving net-zero emissions in global food systems by 2050. Sci Rep 2022;12:15064.

Way R, Ives MC, Mealy P, Farmer JD. Empirically grounded technology forecasts and the Energy Transition. Joule 2022;6:2057-82.

Copley J. What Long-Term Stagnation of Global Economy Means for Climate Change. New Delhi: Business Standard News; 2022.

Hye HA. A Deal is Reached at COP27 but With What Prospect? Uttar Pradesh, India: The Financial Express; 2022.

Chestney N. Global Nuclear Power Capacity Needs to Double by 2050-IEA. London, United Kingdom: Reuters; 2022.

BBC News. Germany: Nuclear Power Plants to Close by 2022. London, United Kingdom: BBC News; 2011.

Editorial Board. Germany is Closing its Last Nuclear Plants-What a Mistake. Washington, D.C.: The Washington Post; 2021.

Russo A, Blettner M, Merzenich H, Wollschlaeger D, Erdmann F, Gianicolo E. Incidence of childhood leukemia before and after shut down of nuclear power plants in Germany in 2011: A population-based register study during 2004 to 2019. Int J Cancer 2022;152:913-20.

Koontalay A, Suksatan W, Prabsangob K, Sadang JM. Healthcare workers’ burdens during the COVID-19 pandemic: A qualitative systematic review. J Multidiscip Healthc 2021;14:3015-25.

Al-Otaibi T, Abbas A, Gheith OA, Nair P, Zahab MA, Hammouda MA, et al. Determinants, predictors and negative impacts of burnout among health care workers during COVID-19 pandemic. J King Saud Univ Sci 2023;35:102441.

Biber J, Ranes B, Lawrence S, Malpani V, Trinh TT, Cyders A, et al. Mental health impact on healthcare workers due to the COVID-19 pandemic: A U.S. cross-sectional survey study. J Patient Rep Outcomes 2022;6:63.

World Health Organization. Health and Care Worker Deaths during COVID-19. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2021.

Guilford G. Covid-19 Illnesses are Keeping at Least 500,000 Workers Out of U.S. Labor Force, Study Says. New York: The Wall Street Journal; 2022.

Poon YR, Lin YP, Griffiths P, Yong KK, Seah B, Liaw SY. A global overview of healthcare workers’ turnover intention amid COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review with future directions. Hum Resour Health 2022;20:70.

Frogner BK, Dill JS. Tracking turnover among health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study. JAMA Health Forum 2022;3:e220371.

Ekblad S. To increase mental health literacy and human rights among new-coming, low-educated mothers with experience of war: A culturally, tailor-made group health promotion intervention with participatory methodology addressing indirectly the children. Front Psychiatry 2020;11:611.

Hawke A. Improving Health Literacy among Refugee and Migrant Children. United States: UNICEF Europe and Central Asia; 2020.

Keasley J, Oyebode O, Shantikumar S, Proto W, McGranahan M, Kidy F, et al. A systematic review of the burden of hypertension, access to services and patient views of hypertension in humanitarian crisis settings. BMJ Glob Health 2020;5:e002440.

Alawneh IS, Yasin A, Musmar S. The prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension among patients taking antihypertensive medications and the associated risk factors in North Palestine: A cross-sectional study. Adv Med 2022;2022:5319756.

Rahman A, Biswas J, Banik PC. Non-communicable diseases risk factors among the forcefully displaced Rohingya population in Bangladesh. PLoS Glob Public Health 2022;2:e0000930.

Sarangi A, McMahon T, Gude J. Benzodiazepine misuse: An epidemic within a pandemic. Cureus 2021;13:e15816.

Lopez G. Marijuana Majority. New York: The New York Times; 2022.

Lucero-Prisno DE, Kouwenhoven MB, Adebisi YA, et al. Top ten public health challenges to track in 2022. Public Health Challenges. 2022;1(3). Doi:10.1002/puh2.21

The Lancet. Health care in conflict: War still has rules. Lancet 2018;391:2080.

Ulmer N, Barten DG, De Cauwer H, Gaakeer MI, Klokman VW, van der Lugt M, et al. Terrorist attacks against hospitals: World-wide trends and attack types. Prehosp Disaster Med 2022;37:25-32.

McNeilly B, Jasani G, Cavaliere G, Alfalasi R, Lawner B. The rising threat of terrorist attacks against hospitals. Prehosp Disaster Med 2022;37:223-9.

Cavaliere GA, Alfalasi R, Jasani GN, Ciottone GR, Lawner BJ. Terrorist attacks against healthcare facilities: A review. Health Secur 2021;19:546-50.

Sekkarie M, Murad L, Al-Makki A, Al-Saghir F, Rifai O, Isreb M. End-stage kidney disease in areas of armed conflicts: Challenges and solutions. Semin Nephrol 2020;40:354-62.

Peters SE, Dennerlein JT, Wagner GR, Sorensen G. Work and worker health in the post-pandemic world: A public health perspective. Lancet Public Health 2022;7:e188-94.

Giles C. Brexit Intensifies Labour Shortages as Companies Struggle to Hire. England, UK: Financial Times; 2022.

Simon R. Small Businesses Get Creative as They Still Struggle with Hiring. New York: The Wall Street Journal; 2022.

Fox M. As Small Businesses Recover from the Pandemic, They Face a New Obstacle: Finding Workers. Mumbai, India: CNBC; 2021.

Carpenter J. 4 Big Questions for Big Tech after Its Worst Day for Layoffs in 2022. Newsletters (Data Sheet). New York City: Fortune; 2022.

WSJ Staff Report. Tech Layoffs across the Industry: Amazon, Meta and More Cut Staff. New York: The Wall Street Journal; 2022.

Krouse S, Flint J. From CNN to Paramount, Media Companies Cut Jobs as Pressures Mount. New York: The Wall Street Journal; 2022.

Gold H. BBC and Guardian Blame the Pandemic for 250 Job Cuts CNN Business. Atlanta, Georgia: CNN; 2020.

Clarke P. Bankers Brace for Job Cuts after Fees Plunge at JPMorgan, Morgan Stanley and Citi. United States: Financial News; 2022.

Fontanella-Khan J. Cost Cuts Loom on Wall Street as Balance of Power with Staff Shifts. United States: Financial Times; 2022.

Nguyen L, Azhar S, Nishant N. Morgan Stanley Making ‘Modest’ Job Cuts; CEO ‘Wouldn’t bet against’ Musk. London, United Kingdom: Reuters; 2022.

Francis T, Glazer E. Layoffs Hit White-Collar Workers as Amazon, Walmart, Others Cut Jobs. New York: The Wall Street Journal; 2022.

Mathers M. Tesco to Axe 300 Jobs but Remaining Staff Will Get Pay Rise. London, United Kingdom: The Independent; 2022.

Taylor T. Nike Plans Layoffs in Pivot to Sell Directly to Consumers Online. New York, United States: SportTechie; 2020.

Jacobsen S. Sweden’s H and M to Lay Off 1,500 Staff in Drive to Cut Soaring Costs and Rescue Profits. London, United Kingdom: Reuters; 2022.

World Health Organization. Building Primary Care in a Changing Europe: Case Studies. Belgium: European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies; 2015.

Deutsche Welle. German Opposition Slams 36,000 Vacant Care Jobs. Bonn, Germany: Deutsche Welle; 2018.

Bencharif ST. Too Far, Too Old, Too Few: Europe is Running Out of Doctors. Virginia, U.S: Politico; 2022.

Henley J, Connolly K, Jones S, Giuffrida A. ‘A Ticking Time Bomb’: Healthcare Under Threat Across Western Europe. London: The Guardian; 2022.

WHO, Regional Office for Europe. Health and Care Workforce in Europe: Time to Act. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2022.

WHO Media Release. Ticking Timebomb: Without Immediate Action, Health and Care Workforce Gaps in the European Region Could Spell Disaster. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2022.

Robinson J. Over 3,000 more Pharmacists Needed in General Practice to Tackle GP Shortages, Says Think Tank Report. New Delhi, India: The Pharmaceutical Journal; 2019.

Mohiuddin AK. Pharmacists in public health: Scope in home and abroad. SOJ Pharm Pharm Sci 2019;6:1-23.

GBD 2019 Human Resources for Health Collaborators. Measuring the availability of human resources for health and its relationship to universal health coverage for 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019: A systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2019. Lancet 2022;399:2129-54.

Feng J, Li L, Wang C, Ke P, Jiang H, Yin X, et al. The prevalence of turnover intention and influencing factors among emergency physicians: A National observation. J Glob Health 2022;12:04005.

Sun X, Zhang M, Lu Z, Zhang Z, Zheng JC, Cheng L, et al. Turnover intention and related factors among resident physicians in China under the standardized residency training programme: A cross-sectional survey. BMJ 2022;12:e061922.

Chen Y, You Y, Shen Y, Du Z, Dai T. Village doctors’ dilemma in China: A systematic evaluation of job burnout and turnover intention. Front Public Health 2022;10:970780.

Mekonnen T, Abera T, Tilahun A, Tadese A, Yadesa T. Self-reported turnover intention and associated factors among health professionals in Kafa Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. SAGE Open Med 2022;10:1-9.

Hou H, Pei Y, Yang Y, Lu L, Yan W, Gao X, et al. Factors associated with turnover intention among healthcare workers during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in China. Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2021;14:4953-65.

De Hert S. Burnout in healthcare workers: Prevalence, impact and preventative strategies. Local Reg Anesth 2020;13:171-83.

Bourget MM, Cassenote AJ, Scheffer MC. Physician turnover in primary health care services in the East Zone of São Paulo city, Brazil: Incidence and associated factors. BMC Health Serv Res 2022;22:147.

Hu H, Wang C, Lan Y, Wu X. Nurses’ turnover intention, hope and career identity: The mediating role of job satisfaction. BMC Nurs 2022;21:43.

Machitidze M. Impact of the Nurses education and shortage on the patients care outcomes-literature review. Am J Biomed Sci Res 2022;15:441-3.

Smokrović E, Kizivat T, Bajan A, Šolić K, Gvozdanović Z, Farčić N, et al. A conceptual model of nurses’ turnover intention. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022;19:8205.

Boniol M, Kunjumen T, Nair TS, Siyam A, Campbell J, Diallo K. The global health workforce stock and distribution in 2020 and 2030: A threat to equity and ‘universal’ health coverage? BMJ Global Health 2022;7:e009316.

Kamarulzaman A, Ramnarayan K, Mocumbi AO. Plugging the medical brain drain. Lancet 2022;400:1492-4.

Tansu A, Culp K. Risk to civilian nuclear power plant workers during the Ukrainian-Russian war. Workplace Health Saf 2022;21650799221134427.

Williams M, Armstrong L, Sizemore DC. Biologic, Chemical, and Radiation Terrorism Review. United States: National Library of Medicine; 2022.

Rathish B, Pillay R, Wilson A, Pillay VV. Comprehensive Review of Bioterrorism. United States: National Library of Medicine; 2022.

The Guardian Art and Design Gallery. Doomsday Dens: Inside Israel’s Bomb Shelters-in Pictures. London: The Guardian; 2017.

Schaer C. The Bunkers that Came in From the Cold. Washington, D.C.: US News; 2019.

Noack R. Sweden has 65,000 Nuclear Shelters. Now, in the Era of Trump, It Wants More. Washington Post, D.C.: The Washington Post; 2021.

Harding T. Finland Prepares Its Bunkers Designed for Nuclear Attack. Abu Dhabi: The National; 2022.

Horowitz J. Pandemic Fears Give Way to a Rush for Bomb Shelters. New York: The New York Times; 2022.

Ruff TA. Ending nuclear weapons before they end us: current challenges and paths to avoiding a public health catastrophe. Journal of Public Health Policy. 2022;43(1):5-17. doi:10.1057/s41271-021-00331-9

Farkas CB, Dudás G, Babinszky GC, Földi L. Analysis of the virus SARS-CoV-2 as a potential bioweapon in light of international literature. Mil Med 2022;usac123.

Birn AE, Pillay Y, Holtz TH. Health under crises and the limits to humanitarianism. In: Textbook of Global Health. 4th ed., Ch. 8. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford Academic; 2017. p. 335-76.

Daw MA. The impact of armed conflict on the epidemiological situation of COVID-19 in Libya, Syria and Yemen. Front Public Health 2021;9:667364.

Quinn VJ, Dhabalia TJ, Roslycky LL, Hansen JC, Hulchiy O, Golubovskaya O, et al. COVID-19 at war: The joint forces operation in Ukraine. Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2022;16:1753-60.

Wells JS, Scheibein F. Global pandemics, conflict and networks-the dynamics of international instability, infodemics and health care in the 21st century. J Res Nurs 2022;27:291-300.

Ikegami M, Wang Z. Does military expenditure crowd out health-care spending? Cross-country empirics. Qual Quant 2022;1-16.

Kaiman J, Smith D, Anand A, Kingsley JW, Hooper J, Woolf N, et al. How Sick are the World’s Healthcare Systems? London: The Guardian; 2014.

Rahman MM, Ghoshal UC, Ragunath K, Jenkins G, Rahman M, Edwards C, et al. Biomedical research in developing countries: Opportunities, methods, and challenges. Indian J Gastroenterol 2020;39:292-302.

Gatti RC. Why we will continue to lose our battle with cancers if we do not stop their triggers from environmental pollution. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021;18:6107.

Koumoundouros T. Ancient 15,000-Year-Old Viruses Found in Melting Tibetan Glaciers. Canberra: ScienceAlert; 2022.

Geddes L. Next Pandemic May Come from Melting Glaciers, New Data Shows. London: The Guardian; 2022.

Goss JR. Health expenditure data, analysis and policy relevance in Australia, 1967 to 2020. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022;19:2143.

Cader AA, Perera L. ADBI Working Paper Series-Understanding the Impact of the Economic Crisis on Child and Maternal Health among the Poor: Opportunities for South Asia. Mandaluyong, Philippines: Asian Development Bank Institute; 2011.

Bao W, Tao R, Afzal A, Dördüncü H. Real estate prices, inflation, and health outcomes: Evidence from developed economies. Front Public Health 2022;10:851388.

American Hospital Association. Massive Growth in Expenses and Rising Inflation Fuel Financial Challenges for America’s Hospitals and Health Systems: AHA. Illinois, United States: American Hospital Association; 2022.

Guerra O, Agyapong VI, Nkire N. A qualitative scoping review of the impacts of economic recessions on mental health: Implications for practice and policy. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022;19:5937.

Jung H, Kwon YD, Noh JW. Financial burden of catastrophic health expenditure on households with chronic diseases: Financial ratio analysis. BMC Health Serv Res 2022;22:568.

Ansberry C. Another Inflation Stress: Rising Costs of Senior-Living Homes Strain Families. New York: The Wall Street Journal; 2022.

Rincon SJ, Dou N, Murray-Kolb LE, Hudy K, Mitchell DC, Li R, et al. Daily food insecurity is associated with diet quality, but not energy intake, in winter and during COVID-19, among low-income adults. Nutr J 2022;21:19.

Chernew M, Cutler DM, Keenan PS. Increasing health insurance costs and the decline in insurance coverage. Health Serv Res 2005;40:1021-39.

Fleron A, Krishna A, Singhal S. The Gathering Storm: The Transformative Impact of Inflation on the Healthcare Sector. Chicago: McKinsey and Company; 2022.

Claborn DM. A Narrative review of the role of economic crisis on health and healthcare infrastructure in three disparate national environments. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020;17:1252.

Shivakumar MS. Vietnam: Twenty years after. Econ Polit Wkly 1995;30:1836-8.

O’Lear S, Gray A. Asking the right questions: Environmental conflict in the case of Azerbaijan. Area 2006;38:390-401.

Kuyumjian N. Perspectives: Don’t Water It Down: The Role of Water Security in the Armenia-Azerbaijan War. Russia and Southwest Asia: Eurasianet; 2021.

Samadikuchaksaraei A, Mousavizadeh K. High-tech biomedical research: Lessons from Iran’s experience. BioMed Eng Online 2008;7:17.

Cieslik N. Fragility and Conflict: On the Front Lines of the Fight against Poverty. Washington, D.C., United States: World Bank; 2020.

World Bank. Overview: Fragility, Conflict and Violence. Washington, D.C., United States: World Bank; 2022.

Selassie W. Jacob Holding on to the Man Angel YHWH! Symbolize a Nation and People Holding on to Their Faith and Received a Blessing. United States:; 2019.

Wong E. The U.S. Wants to Counter China’s Moves in Africa. But American Officials Try not to Mention That. New York: The New York Times; 2022.

Bisset V, Nichols K, Chapman A, Bikales J, Villegas P, Thebault R. Ukraine Live Briefing: Russia Blames West for Global Food Crisis Despite Blockade on Ukrainian Grain. Washington, D.C.: The Washington Post; 2022.

Uacrisis. How Many Health Care Facilities Were Destroyed by the Russian Military. Ukraine: Ukraine Crisis Media Center; 2022. Available from: [Last accessed on 2023 Jan 14].

Vikhrov N. Near the Russian Border, A Ukrainian Hospital Under Bombardment. United Kingdom: Byline Times; 2022.

People in Need-PIN. The Ukrainian Refugee Crisis: Providing Important Historical Context for the Current Situation. Maryland, United States: World Relief®; 2022.

UNICEF. Humanitarian Action for Children 2022-Ukraine and Refugee Response Crisis. New York, United States: UNICEF; 2022.

Feyzabadi VY, Haghdoost A, Mehrolhassani MH, Aminian Z. The association between peace and life expectancy: An empirical study of the world countries. Iran J Public Health 2015;44:341-51.

Kruk ME, Gage AD, Arsenault C, Jordan K, Leslie HH, Roder-DeWan S, et al. High-quality health systems in the Sustainable Development Goals era: Time for a revolution. Lancet Glob Health 2018;6:e1196-252.

Takian A, Rajaeieh G. Peace, health, and sustainable development in the Middle East. Arch Iran Med 2020;23(4 Suppl 1):S23-6.

Barber H. Europe’s Hospitals Face Collapse Within 10 Years. West Bengal, India: The Telegraph; 2022.

Hasselbach C. Europe is the Main Focus for Weapons Exporters. Bonn, Germany: Deutsche Welle; 2022.

Salami RK. A letter in the Lancet of June 2020¹ claimed the COVID-19 pandemic teaches lessons we must embrace to overcome two additional existential threats: Nuclear war and global warming. What lessons can we learn from the global response to COVID-19 that could help the world address future threats such as climate change or the proliferation of nuclear weapons? ¹Muller and Nathan. Med Confl Surviv 2022;38:332-8.



How to Cite