BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY OF ABRUS PRECATORIUS (LINN) LEAVES AND ROOT EXTRACT
Keywords:Insert Brine shrimp, cytotoxicity, extracts, LC50, Abrus precatorius
Objective: The present study was conducted to test for in vivo Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA) of Abrus precarious leaves and root extracts after successive maceration in four solvents (n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) ethyl acetate and methanol) and correlate cytotoxicity results with known pharmacological activities of the plant.
Methods: Cytotoxicity was evaluated in terms of LC50 (lethality concentration), 10 nauplii were added into three replicates of each concentration of the plant extracts, and after 24 h the surviving brine shrimp larvae were counted, and LC50 was assessed.
Results: Potent cytotoxicity was found for both the leaves and root extracts of Abrus precatorius, results showed a concentration dependent increment in mortality rate of the brine shrimp nauplii and the n-hexane and dichloromethane fractions of the root and leaves extracts were more potent against the brine shrimp with LC50 values of 7.870 ppm and 19.135 ppm (Âµg/ml) respectively, whereas methanol fractions of both the extracts exhibited low potent activity with LC50 values 61.575 ppm and 226.053 ppm (Âµg/ml) in root and leaves respectively.
Conclusion: The result indicated bioactive components are present in this plant that could be accounted for its pharmacological effects.
Ghisalberti EL. Detection and isolation of bioactive neutral products. In S. M. Colgate and molyneux editor. Bioactive natural products: detection, isolation and structure. Boca Raton: CRS Press; 1993. p. 15.
Zhao G, Hui Y, Rupprecht JK, McLaughlin JL, Wood KV. Additional bioactive compounds and Trilobacin, a novel highly cytotoxic acetogenin from the bark of Asimina tribola. J Nat Prod 1992;55:347-56.
Meyer BN, Ferrigni NR, Putna JE, Jacobsen LB, Nichols DE, McLaughlin JL. Brine shrimp: a convenient general bioassay for active plant constituents. Plant Med 1991;45:31-4.
Kaniz FU, Samina M, Gulshanara B, Kaiser H. Comparative brine shrimp lethality bioassay of different plants of Bauhinia pueprea L. J Pharm Sci Res 2013;5:190-2.
Lilybeth FO, Olga MN. Brine shrimp lethality assay of the ethanolic extract of three selected species of medicinal plants from Iligan City, Philippines. Int Res J Biosci 2013;2:74-7.
Sirito P, Pinyupa P, Nasit P, Siriluk R, Onrudee M. Brine shrimp lethality activity of thai medicinal plants in the family Meliaceae. Naresuan University J 2004;12:13-8.
Nguta JM, Mbaria JM, Gakuya DW, Gathumbi PK, Kabasa JD, Kaima SG. Evaluation of acute toxicity of crude extracts from Kenya biodiversity using brime shrimp, Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae). Open Conference Proceedings J 2013;3:30-4.
Ghosh A, Chatterjee P. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity of 50% alcoholic extract of Croton bonplandianum baill. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2013;6 Suppl 3:40-1.
Zakaria HM, Mainen JM, Pax JM, Modest CK, Ramadhani SON. Antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts of Terminalia brownii roots and stem. BMC Complementary Altern Med 2007;7:9-15.
Konan NA, Bacchr EM, Linconpan N, Varela SD, Varenda EA. Acute, sub-acute toxicity and genotoxic effect of hydroethanolic extract of the cashew (Anacadium occidentali L.) J Ethnopharmol 2007;110:30-8.
Nwachukwu CU, Ume NC, Obusi MN, Nzewuihe GU, Onyiroiha CU. The qualitative uses of some medicinal plants in Ikeduru L. G. A. of Imo State, Nigeria. New York Sci J 2010;3 Suppl 11;129-34.
Morton JF. Atlas of medicinal plants of middle America: The Bahamas to Yucatan. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C Thomas 1981;46:241-56.
Wakawa HY, Musa H. Protective effect of Erythrina senegalensis (DC) leaf extracts on CCl4 induced liver damage in rats. Asian J Biol Sci 2013;6:234-8.
McLaughlin JL, Rogers LL. The use of the biological assay to evaluate botanicals. Drug Info J 1998;32:513-24.
Padjama R, Arun PC, Prashanth D, Deepak M, Amit A, Anajna M. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay of Indian medicinal plants. Fitoterapia 2002;73:508-10.
Abhilasha S, Kuntal K. Analysis of phytochemical constituents and pharmacological properties of Abrus precatorius L. Int J Pharmacol Biol Sci 2013;4:91-6.
Adelowotan O, Aibinu I, Aednipekun E, Odugbemi T. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of Abrus Precatorius (L) fabaceae extract on some clinical pathogens. Nigerian Postgrad Med J 2008;15:32-7.
Prashith Kekuda TR, Vinayaka KS, Soumya KV, Ashwini SK, Kiran R. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanolic extract of Abrus pulchellus wall and Abrus precatorius Linn-a comparative study. Int J Toxicol Pharmacol Res 2010;2:26-9.
Adedapo AA, Omoloye OA, Ohore OG. Studies on the toxicity of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Abrus precatorius in rats. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 2007;74:31â€“6.