• Suresh Chandra Joshi University of Rajasthan, Jaipur
  • Priyanka Sharma University of Rajasthan
  • S. C. Joshi University of Rajasthan



Dichlorovos, Zingiber officinale, Androgenic, Antioxidants and Lipid peroxidation


Objective: Aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Z. officinalein mitigating oxidative damage and reproductive toxicity in the testis, induced by chronic dichlorovos administration in male Wistar rats.

Methods: Twenty four adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats in each group. Group I received olive oil (1 ml/ kg bwt/day) and served as control group, while Group II was administered dichlorovos (20 mg/kg bwt/day) and Group III & IV received a combination of dichlorovos (20 mg/kg bwt) andZingiber officinale (ginger) extract (100 & 200 mg/kg bwt) for 45 days. At the end of the treatment period, the rats were sacrificed.

Results: The weight of the reproductive organs and serum FSH, LH and testosterone levels were assayed. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) (indexed by MDA) and antioxidants enzymes GSH, SOD, CAT were also analysed. Dichlorovos treatment decreased the weight of testis, epididymis, prostate and seminal vesicle as well as the serumlevels of FSH, LH and testosterone. There was a decrease in the activities of GSH, SOD and CAT as well as an increase in MDA concentration.

Conclusion: Co-administration of aqueous extract ofZingiber officinalewith dichlorovos showed protective effect and increases the reproductive organs weight and enhancesserum hormones level along with increased antioxidants activities and reduced lipid peroxidation. This indicates that Zingiber officinale mitigates reproductive toxicity and oxidative damage induced by dichlorovos exposure due to its antioxidant activity in the testes.


Download data is not yet available.


John S, Kale M, Rathore N, Bhatnagar D. Protective effect of

vitamin E in dimethoate and malathion induced oxidative

stress in rat erythrocytes. J Nut Biochem 2001;12:500-4.

Celik I, Suzek H. Effects of subacute exposure of dichlorvos at

sublethal dosages on erythrocytes and tissue antioxidant

defence systems and lipid peroxidation in rats. Ecotoxicol

Environ Saf 2009;72:905-8.

Hamid S, Sharm S, Razdan S. Carbaryl, a pesticide causes

Reproductive Toxicity†in Albino Rats. J Clin Exp Pathol


Verma RS, Mehta A, Srivastava N. Comparative studies on

chlorpyrifos and methyl parathion-induced oxidative stress in

different parts of rat brain: attenuation by antioxidant

vitamins. Pestic Biochem Physiol 2009;95:152-8.

Olatunde O, Fabian VE, Bukola SA, Sheu R, Effiong EA, Ganiyu

OA. Histological changes in liver and lungs of rats exposed to

dichlorvos before and after vitamin supplementation. Eur J

Anat 2012;16:190-8.

Erdogan O, Atamanalp M, Sisman T, Akasaki E, Alak G. Effects of

, 2-Dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (DDVP) on Hsp70 gene

expression in rainbow trout. Israeli J Aquaculture-Bamidgeh


Diwivedi N, Bhutia YD, Kumar V, Yadav P, Kushwaha P,

Swarnkar H, et al. Effects of combined exposure to dichlorvos

and monocrotophos on blood and brain biochemical variables

in rats. Hum Exp Toxicol 2010;29:121-9.

Hagar HH, Fahmy AH. A biochemical, histochemical, and

ultrastructural evaluation of the effect of dimethoate

intoxication on rat pancreas. Toxicol Lett 2002;133:161-70.

Verma RS, Srivastva N. Effect of chlorpyrifos on thiobarbituric

acid reactive substances scavenging enzyme and glutathione in

rat tissues. Indian J Biochem Biophys 2003;40:423-8.

Joshi SC, Mathur R, Gajraj A, Sharma T. Influence of methyl

parathion on reproductive parameters in male rats. Environ

Toxicol Pharmacol 2003;14:91-8.

Neishabouri EZ, Hassan ZM, Azizi E, Ostad SN. Evaluation of

immunotoxicity induced by diazinon in C57bl/6 mice.

Toxicology 2004;196:173-9.

Celik I, Suzek H. Effects of subacute exposure of dichlorvos at

sublethal dosages on erythrocytes and tissue antioxidant

defence systems and lipid peroxidation in rats. Ecotoxicol

Environ Saf 2009;72:905-8.

Kalender S, Uzun FG, Durak D, Demir F, Kalender Y. Malathion

induced hepatotoxicity in rats: the effects of Vit. C and E. Food

Chem Toxicol 2010;48:633-38.

Ambali SF, Shuaibu K, Edeh R, Orieji BC, Shittu M.

Hyperglycemia induced by subchronic co-administration of

chlorpyrifos and lead in Wistar rats: Role of pancreatic

lipoperoxidation and alleviating the effect of vitamin C. Biol

Med 2011;3:6-14.

Heikal TM, El-Sherbiny M, Hassan SA, Arafa A, Ghanem HZ.

Antioxidant effect of selenium on hepatotoxicity induced by

chlorpyrifos in male rats. Int J Pharm Sci 2012b;4:603-9.

Mogda K, Mansour Afaf AI, El-Kashoury MA, Koretem KM.

Oxidative and biochemical alterations induced by profenofos

insecticide in rats. Nat Sci 2009;7:1-15.

Khan M, Kour G. Subacute oral toxicity of CPF and the

protective effect of green tea extract. Pest Biochem Phys


Aly AH, Debbab A, Kjer J, Proksch P. Fungal endophytes from

higher plants: a prolific source of phytochemicals and other

bioactive natural products. Fungal Divers 2010;41:1-16.

Sekiwa Y, Kubota K, Kobayashi A. Isolation of novel glucosides

related to gingerdiol from ginger and their antioxidative

activities. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48:373-7.

Sharma P, Singh R. Dichlorvos and lindane induced oxidative

stress in rat brain: protective effects of ginger. Pharmacogn Res


Mishra A, Kumar S, Bhargava A, Sharma B, Pandey AK. Studies

on in vitro antioxidant and antistaphylococcal activities of some

important medicinal plants. Cell Mol Biol 2011;57:16-25.

Anilakumar KR, Saritha V, Khanum F, Bawa AS. Ameliorative

effect of ajwain extract on hexachlorocyclohexane-induced lipid

peroxidation in rat liver. Food Chem Toxicol 2009;47:279-82.

Kubra IR, Rao LJM. Effect of microwave drying on the

phytochemical composition of volatiles of ginger. Int J Food Sci

Technol 2012;47:53-60.

Ernst E, Pittler MH. Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting:

a systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Br J Anaesth


Ahmed MA, Ahmed S. The protective effect of ginger (Zingiber

officinale) against adriamycin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats: a

histological study. Life Sci J 2013;10:1412-22.

Indian National Science Academy (INSA). Guidelines for the

care and use of animals in scientific research reported by

Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi; 2000.

Ratnasooriya WD, Dharmasiri MG. Effects of Terminalia

catappa seeds on sexual behaviour and fertility of male rats.

Asian J Androl 2000;2:213-9.

Prasad MRN, Chinoy NJ, Kadam KM. Changes in succinate

dehydrogenase levels in the rat epididymis under normal and

altered physiologic conditions. Fertil Steril 1972;23:186-90.

Ohokawa H, Oshishi N, Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxidation in

animal tissues by the thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal

Biochem 1979;75:351-8.

Clairborne A. Catalase activity. In: Greenwald RA. ed. CRC

Handbook of methods for oxygen radical research. Boca Raton

FL, USA: CRC Press; 1985. p. 283-4.

Carlberg I, Mannervik B. Purification and characterization of

the flavoenzyme glutathione reductase from rat liver. J Biol

Chem 1975;250:5475-80.

Das K, Samanta L, Chainy GBN. A modified spectrophotometric

assay of superoxide dismutase using nitrite formation by

superoxide radicals. Indian J Biochem Biophys 2000;37:201-4.

Belanger A, Caron S, Picard V. Simultaneous radioimmunoassay

of progestins, androgens and estrogens in rat testis. J Steroid

Biochem 1980;13:185-90.

Joshi SC, Tibrewal P, Sharma A, Sharma P. Evaluation of

testicular toxicity of butachlor (a chloroacetanilide herbicide)

in rats. J Adv Sci Res 2012;3:45-50.

Sarkar M, Chaudhuri GR, Chattopadhyay A, Biswas NM. Effect of

sodium arsenite on spermatogenesis, plasma gonadotrophins

and testosterone in rats. Asian J Androl 2003;1:27-31.

Bian Q, Qian J, Xu L, Chen J, Song L, Wang X. The toxic effects of

-tert-octylphenol on the reproductive system of male rats.

Food Chem Toxicol 2006;44:1355-61.

Kamtchouing P, Fandio GYM, Dimo T, Jastra HB. Evaluation of

androgenic activities of Zingiber officinale and Pentadiplandra

brazzeana in male rats. Asian J Androl 2002;4:299-301.

Jana K, Jana S, Samanta PK. Effect of chronic exposure to

sodium arsenite on hypothalamopituitary-testicular activities

in adult rats: possible an estrogenic mode of action. Reprod

Biol Endocrinol 2006;4:91-6.

Morakinyo AO, Achema PU, Adegoke OA. Effect of Zingiber

officinale (ginger) on sodium arsenite-induced reproductive

toxicity in Male Rats. Afr J Biomed 2010;13:39-45.

Joshi SC, Sharma A, Chaturvedi M. Antifertility potential of

some medicinal plants in males: an overview. Int J Pharm

Pharm Sci 2011;3:204-17.

Nwanjo HU, Iroagba IN, Nnatuanya IN, Eze NA. Antifertility

activity of dihydro arteminisinin in male albino rats. Int J

Endocrinol 2007;4:3.

Rasyidah TI, Suhana S, Nur-Hidayah H, Kaswandi MA, Noah RM.

Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Zingiber officinale (Ginger)

on formalin-induced testicular toxicity in rats. J Med Bioeng


Sanocka D, Kurpisz M. Reactive oxygen species and sperm cells.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2004;2:12.

Hussein MSH, Abdou KHA, Mahmoud ASH, Abd-El-Rahman W.

Toxic interaction of pyrethroid (Katron) and sodium fluoride

on reproductive performance of male albino rats. Assiut Vet

Med J 2008;54:219-41.

Devi R, Boruah DC, Sharma DK, Kotoky J. Leaf extract of

Clerodendron colebrookianum inhibits intrinsic

hypercholesterolemia and extrinsic lipid peroxidation. Int J

Pharm Tech Res 2011;3:960-7.

Verma RS, Srivastava N. Effect of chloropyrifos on

thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, scavenging enzymes

and glutathione in rat tissues. Indian J Biochem Biophys


Olorunnisola OS, Bradley G, Afolayan AJ. Protective effect of T.

violacea rhizome extract against hypercholesterolemiainduced

oxidative stress in wistar Rats. Molecules


Prasanna GS, Purnima A. Protective effect of leaf extract of

Trichiliaconnaroides on hypercholesterolemia-induced

oxidative stress. Int J Pharmacol 2011;7:106-12.

Shivarajashankara YM, Shivashankara AR, Bhat PG, Rao SH.

Effect of fluoride intoxication on lipid peroxidation and

antioxidant systems in rats. Fluoride 2001;34:108-13.

Yousef MI, Awad TI, Mohamad EH. Deltamethrin-induced

oxidative damage and biochemical alterations in rat and its

attenuation by vitamin E. Toxicology 2006;227:240-7.

Kant V, Srivastava AK, Verma PK, Raina R, Pankaj NK.

Negligible ameliorative effect of aluminum sulphate on

oxidative stress parameters in goats during subacute fluoride

intoxication. Fluoride 2009;42:117-20.

Lee KW, Jeong YJ, Lim BJ, Chang YK, Lee SJ, Na KR, Shin YT, et al.

Sildenafi l attenuates renal injury inan experimental model of rat

cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Toxicology 2009;257:137-43.

Ahmed MM, Zaki NI. Assessment the ameliorative effect of

pomegranate and rutin on chloropyrifos-ethyl-induced

oxidative stress in rats. Nat Sci 2009;7:49-61.

Kose A, Gunay N, Kose B, Ocak AR, Erel O, Demiryurek AT.

Effects of atropine and pralidoxime pretreatment on serum and

cardiac oxidative stress parameters in acute dichlorvos toxicity

in rats. Pest Biochem Physiol 2010;97:249-55.

Khalifa FK, Fatma A, Khalil-Heba A, Barakat-Marwa M,

Hassan. Protective role of wheat germ and grape seed oils

in CPF induced oxidative stress, biochemical and

histological alterations in liver of rats. Austral J Basic Appl

Sci 2011;5:54-66.

Morakinyo AO, Adeniyi OS, Arikawe AP. Effects of Zingiber

officinale on reproductive functions in male rats. Afr J Biomed

Res 2008;11:329-33.

Ahmed RS, Seth V, Banerjee BD. Influence of dietary ginger on

antioxidant defence system in rat: comparison with ascorbic

acid. Indian J Exp Biol 2000;38:604-6.

Sikka SC. Role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in andrology

and assisted reproductive technology. J Androl 2004;25:5-18.

McLachlan RI, O'Donnell L, Meachem SJ, Stanton PG, De Kretser

DM, Pratis K, et al. Identification of specific sites of hormonal

regulation in spermatogenesis in rats, monkeys, and man.

Recent Prog Horm Res 2002;57:149-79.

Whirledge S, Cidlowski JA. Glucocorticoids, stress, and fertility.

Minerva Endocrinol 2010;35:109-25.

Kavlock R, Cumming A. Mode of action: inhibition of androgen

receptor function vinclozolin, induced malformation in

reproductive development. Crit Rev Toxicol 2005;35:721-6.

Reddy PS, Pushpalatha T, Reddy PS. Reduction in

spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in mice after fentin and

fenbutalin administration. Toxicol Lett 2006;166:53-9.

Pareek TK, Joshi AR, Sanyal A, Dighe RR. Insights into male

germ cell apoptosis due to depletion of gonadotrophin caused

by GnRH antagonists. Apoptosis 2007;12:1085-100.



How to Cite

Joshi, S. C., P. Sharma, and S. C. Joshi. “MITIGATING EFFECTS OF ZINGIBER OFFICINALE AGAINST REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY INDUCED BY DICHLOROVOS IN MALE RATS”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 9, no. 5, May 2017, pp. 107-13, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2017v9i5.16346.



Original Article(s)