EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS STEM BARK EXTRACT OF XYLOPIA AETHIOPICA ON THE REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTIONS OF MALE RATS
Keywords:Spermatogenesis, Xylopia aethiopica, Testosterone level, Fertility
Objective: The sexual stimulatory effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Xylopia aethiopica which is commonly used traditionally for the treatment of fertility-related problems in males is reported in this work.
Methods: The present study investigated the effect of 14 d oral administration of 1 ml/kg distilled water (control), 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of body weight of the stem bark extract on some fertility parameters of the Swiss male rats. So, all the target organs (testis, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicle and prostate) were weighed. The sperm motility and sperm count in testis, epididymis and vas deferens were determined. Serum and tissue protein, as well as cholesterol, were evaluated. The serum testosterone level was also assessed.
Results: The extract did not produced significant change in the mobility of sperm, the sperm count in vas deferens, the relative weight of body and accessory organs at all doses. The daily sperm production (DSP) and the weight of prostate significantly increased at a dose of 100 mg/kg (p<0.01) while the sperm count in cauda epididymis increased at a dose of 200 mg/kg. The testicular and serum cholesterol significantly increased (p<0.001) at the dose of 100 mg/kg whereas the testicular and serum proteins increased (p<0.001) at the dose of 200 mg/kg. The serum testosterone level increased following 14 d of treatment (p<0.01) at the dose of 100 mg/kg.
Conclusion: The results suggest that Xylopia aethiopica may have the potentials of being developed into a male fertility enhancing drug.
Kashani HH, Malekzadeh SS, Hoshmand F. The effect of aqueous extract of salep prepared from root-tubers of Dactylorhiza maculate (Orchidaceae) on the testes and sexual hormones of immature male mice. J Med Plants Res 2012;6:4102-6.
Massoma LD, Koloko BL, Bend EF, Domkam J, Oundoum OPC, Ngaha NM, et al. Fertility enhancing effects of aqueous extract of Rauvolfia vomitoria on reproductive functions of male rats. J Exp Integr Med 2014;4:43-9.
Verma PK, Sharma A, Mathur A, Sharma P, Gupta RS, Joshi SC, et al. Effect of Sarcostemma acidum stem extract on spermatogenesis in male albino rats. Asian J Androl 2002; 4:43-7.
Sudhir AA, Rajendra BP, Prashant DG, Ms Vinita P, Deshbandhu P, Haja S. Aphrodisiac activity of aqueuous extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra in male wistar rats. World J Pharm Res 2012;1:371-8.
FÃ©licite N, Habiba K, Thierry H, Eric H, Leonard ST, Pierre M, et al. Composition of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich essential oils from cameroon and identification of a minor diterpene: ent-13-epi manoyl oxide. Biotechnol Agron Soc Environ 2007;1:193â€“9.
Anvam ZPH. Extraction et analyse des huiles essentielles de trois especes de la famille des Annonacees du cameroun. Faculte Des Sci Yaounde Armand Collin Paris 1998;27:5Ã¨. 88.
Ekpo IA, Agbor RB, Osuagwu AN, Ekanem BE, Okpako EC, Urua IS. Phytochemical and comparative studies of the stem bark and root of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal.) A Rich. World J Biol Res 2012;5:41-4.
Ekeanyanwu RC, Etienajirhevwe OF. Phytochemical analysis and in vitro anthelmintic potentials of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) a. rich (Annonacea) from Nigeria. Int J Biol Pharm Allied Sci 2012;1:322-30.
Guidelines for the appropriate use of herbal medicines. WHO Regional Office for Western Pacific, Manila; 1998. p. 65.
Gonzales GF, Gasco M, Cordova A, Chung A, Rubio J, Villegas L. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on spermatogenesis in male rats acutely exposed to high altitude (4340 m). J Endocrinol 2004;180:87-95.
Takahashi O, Oishi S. Testicular toxicity of dietarily or parenterally administered bisphenol A in rats and mice. Food Chem Toxicol 2003;41:1035-44.
Kubota K, Ohsako S, Kurosawa S, Takeda K, Qing W, Sakaue M, et al. Effects of Vinclozolin administration on sperm production and testosterone biosynthetic pathway in adult male rat. J Reprod Dev 2003;49:403-12.
Dalsenter PR, de Araujo SL, Assis HC, Andrade AJ, Dallegrave E. Pre and postnatal exposure to endosulfan in wistar rats. Hum Exp Toxicol 2003;22:171-5.
Gornall AG, Bardawill CJ, David MM. Determination of serum proteins by the means of biuret reactions. J Biol Chem 1949;177:751-66.
Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantification microgram quantities of proteins utilising the principle of protein binding. Anal Biochem 1976;72:248-54.
Forbes JC. Dosage du cholesterol. J Lab Med 1930;16:520.
Mohan VR, Balamurugan K, Sakthidevi G. Fertility enhancement of Polycarpaea corymbosa (L.) Lam (Caryophyllaceae) whole plant on male albino rats. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2013;6:151-5.
Amayaw Y, Owusu AE. Morphohistological studies of two plants species used in ethnomedicine. J Herbs Spices Med Plants 1998;5:60-85.
GÃ¼ldeniz S, Sibel H, Durdane K, AslÄ± OT, Kadriye S. The effect of pollen on some reproductive parameters of male rats. Scientific paper Naucni Rad; 2009. p. 59-63.
Johnson MH, Everitt BJ. Essential reproduction. Third Edition. Oxford: Black Well scientific publications; 1988. p. 53.
Gonzales GF. Function of seminal vesicles and their role in male fertility. Asian J Androl 2001;3:251-8.
Cheng CY. Molecular mechanisms in spermatogenesis. Adv Exp Med Biol 2008;636:1-289.
Joy KL, Kuttan R. Inhibition by Phyllanthus amarus of hepatocarcinogenesis induced by N-Nitrosodiethylamine. J Bioch Nutr 1998;24:133-9.
Kassuya CA, Silerstre AA, Rehder V, Calixto JB. Anti allodynic and antioedematogeni properties of the lignan from Phyllanthus amarus in models of persistent inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Eur J Pharm 2003;478:145-53.
Adeneye AA, Benebo AS, Agbaje EO. Protective effect of the aqueous leaf and seed extract of Phyllanthus amarus on alcoholâ€“induced hepatotoxity in rats. West Afr J Pharmacol Drug Res 2007;22:42-50.
Obianime AW, Uche FI. The phytochemical constituents and the effects of methanol extract of Phyllanthus amarus leaves (kidney stone plant) on the hormonal parameters of Male guinea pigs. J Appl Sci Environ Manage 2009;13:5-9.
Parandin R, Ghorbani R. Effects of alcoholic extract of Achilea mellefolium flowers on fertility parameters of male rats. Int J Pharm Tech Res 2010;2:2492-6.
Agrawal S, Chauhan S, Mathur R. Anti-fertility effects of embelin in male rats. Androl 1986;18:125-31.
Shima Y, Miyabayashi K, Haraguchi S, Arakawa T, Otake H, Baba T, et al. Contribution of leydig and sertoli cells to testosterone production in mouse fetal testes. Mol Endocrinol 2013;27:63-73.
Kenneth L, Becker. Principles and practice of endocrinology and metabolism. Medical; 2001. p. 957.
Qin DN, She BR, She YC, Wang JH. Effects of flavonoids from semen cuscutae on the reproductive system in male rats. Asian J Androl 2000;2:99-102.
Sullivan R, Saez F, Girouard J, Frenette G. Role of exosomes in sperm maturation during the transit along the male reproductive tract. Blood Cells Mol Dis 2005;35:1-10.
Spaliviero JA, Jimenez M, Allan CM, Handelsman DJ. Luteinizing hormone receptor-mediated effects on initiation of spermatogenesis in gonadotropin-deficient (hpg) mice are replicated by testosterone. Biol Reprod 2004;70:32-8.
Tulsiani DR. Glycan-modifying enzymes in luminal fluid of the mammalian epididymis: an overview of their potential role in sperm maturation. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2006; 250:58-65.
Nishimura H, Cho C, Branciforte DR, Myles DG, Primakoff P. Analysis of loss adhesive function in sperm lacking cyritestin or fertilin beta. Dev Biol 2001;233:204-13.
Frenette G, Lessard C, Sullivan R. Polyol pathway along the bovine epididymis. Mol Reprod Dev 2004;69:448-56.