• Pratiwi Wikaningtyas Institut Teknologi Bandung
  • Joseph I Sigit Bandung Institute of Technology
  • Elin Yulinah Sukandar Bandung Institute of Technology
  • Indahwaty Gunawan Clinical Pathologist, Immanuel Hospital,


Resistance pattern, Antibiotic, microorganism, isolate, ICU, Escherichia coli, Ampicillin, meropenem


Objective: To evaluate the resistance and usage patterns of antibiotics in the ICU of the private hospital in Bandung Indonesia.

Methods: A cross sectional retrospective study in the period from July to December 2012 at a private hospital in Bandung Indonesia which conducted microbial identification and antibiotic sensitivity testing using Kirby Bauer method.

Results: There were 132 patients were cultured positive which sputum was the most common specimen (86.36%, n=114). Pneumonia was the most frequent diagnosis (34.3%). Thirteen bacteria obtained were Escherichia coli (31.58%) as the highest isolates, followed by Pseudomonas Spp. (20.18%) and Acinetobacter baumanii (10.53%). Beta lactam group was found as the most frequent antibiotic use especially meropenem. The highest rate of microbial resistance was to Ampicillin including E. coli, K. pneumoniae, Stenotrophomonas Sp., Enterobacter Spp., Serratia Sp. Those isolates were 100% resistant to ampicillinandA. baumannii isolate were 83.3% resistant to Ampicillin.

Conclusion: The resistance rate and the usage of high beta-lactam antibiotics in the ICU required good management in making programs for infection control, surveillance of resistant bacteria, monitoring the use of antibiotics in hospitals, making a sustainable new guidelines for the usage of antibiotics and prophylaxis, and monitoring the usage of antibiotics in hospitals.



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How to Cite

Wikaningtyas, P., J. I. Sigit, E. Y. Sukandar, and I. Gunawan. “PROFILE OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE AND USAGE PATTERN IN ICU OF PRIVATE HOSPITAL IN BANDUNG, INDONESIA”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 7, no. 2, Feb. 2015, pp. 160-2,



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