• Sunetra K. Patwardhan Sinhgad College of Pharmacy, PuneIndia
  • Manali A. Bhide Sinhgad College of Pharmacy, Vadgaon (Bk), PuneIndia


Diclofenac sodium, Evaluation, Myristica fragrans, Penetration enhancer, Percutaneous absorption


Objective: Skin delivery of NSAIDs offers several advantages over oral route associated with potential side effects. The study aims at exploring the potential of Myristica fragrans as a penetration enhancer (PE) for transdermal gel of Diclofenac sodium.

Methods: In the present work, methanol extract (ME), chloroform extract (CE) and n-hexane extract (NHE) of Myristica fragranswere subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening and TLC. These extracts were evaluated for enhancing in vitro & ex vivo percutaneous absorption in comparison with synthetic enhancer (SE). The study was performed for Diclofenac sodium as target drug formulated in gel form with Ethanol (95%) as a solvent & carbopol 934p as a gelling polymer using Franz diffusion cell. It was evaluated for different physicochemical parameters.

Results: The different extracts showed the presence of carbohydrates, fats and oils, volatile oil and flavonoids. The gel formulation complied with various physicochemical parameters for evaluation like odour, consistency, grittiness, pH (6.7), stickiness, uniformity, spreadability (6.7 g. Cm/Sec) & viscosity (10160cps). In vitro and Ex vivo studies showed that both ME and CE showed better % cumulative release (% CR), hence better penetration effect as compared to the SE. Maximum % C. R (27.97) and flux (151.45) was found in a P1H2 batch (ME) while the next highest was P1H4 (CE). The % C. R and flux of gel with synthetic enhancer were low, i. e. 20.8% and 112.62 respectively. Maximum enhancement ratio (ER) (1.913) was observed in P1H2 (ME) batch.

Conclusion: ME and CE may serve as potential penetration enhancers for industrial benefit.



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Author Biographies

Sunetra K. Patwardhan, Sinhgad College of Pharmacy, PuneIndia

Department of Pharmacy

Manali A. Bhide, Sinhgad College of Pharmacy, Vadgaon (Bk), PuneIndia

Department of Pharmacy


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How to Cite

Patwardhan, S. K., and M. A. Bhide. “EVALUATION OF MYRISTICA FRAGRANS AS A PENETRATION ENHANCER IN TRANSDERMAL GEL FORMULATION”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 7, no. 3, Mar. 2015, pp. 350-5, https://journals.innovareacademics.in/index.php/ijpps/article/view/3747.



Original Article(s)