• P. Shilpa Kakatiya University
  • V. Koteswara Rao Kakatiya University
  • K. Narasimha Rao Kakatiya University
  • S. Girisham Kakatiya University
  • S. M. Reddy Kakatiya University


F aethiopicum, F culmorum, PCR, Carbon Sources, Nitrogen Sources, DON, NIV, HPLC


Objective: Influence of different carbon [C] and nitrogen [N] source on the growth and Deoxynivalenol [DON] and Nivalenol [NIV] production by Fusarium aethiopicum and Fusarium culmorum was investigated.

Methods: Seven days old monosporic cultures of F. aethiopicum strain GSKUMB [KJ21085] and F. culmorum strain GSKUMB [KJ190159] were grown in CYA broth and incubated at 27±2°C on the rotary shaker at 120 rpm for 21 days. At the end of incubation period, cultures were harvested for determination of fungal growth (biomass). The resultant culture filtrates were extracted twice with ethyl acetate and concentrated. One ml of final concentrate in methanol was employed for detection of DON and NIV with the help of RP-HPLC.

Results: The highest amount of DON and NIV were produced by F. aethiopicum in the presence of D-mannose and D-galactose as C source, while the highest amount of biomass was recorded on maltose and succinic acid. F. culmorum produced maximum amount of toxins in the presence of D-glucose, D-mannitol and D-fructose. Sodium nitrate was most favorable nitrogen source as it induced maximum amount of toxins by F. aethiopicum, while L-methionine, L-asparatic acid and L-tryptophan were next preferred N source. In contrast, highest biomass of fungus was obtained with L-lysine, L-glutamine and L-tyrosine. F. culmorum produced maximum amount of toxin and biomass with potassium nitrate and L-tyrosine respectively.

Conclusion: Present species of Fusarium differed varied both in toxins (DON, and NIV) and biomass production. Their response of fungi under investigation towards C and N sources is also varied.



Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

V. Koteswara Rao, Kakatiya University



Drusch S, Ragab W. Mycotoxins in fruits, fruit juices and dried fruits. J Food Prot 2003;66:1514–27.

Abrunhosa L, Robert R, Paterson M, Venancio A. Biodegradation of Ochratoxin A for food and feed decontamination. Toxins 2010;2:1078-99.

De Vries JW, Trucksess MW, Jackson LS. Mycotoxins and food safety. Kluwer New York; 2002. p. 1–298.

Sforza S, Dall’asta C, Marchelli R. Recent advances in mycotoxin determination in food and feed by hyphenated chromatographic techniques/mass spectrometry. Mass Spectrom Rev 2006;25:54–76.

Venkataramana M, Shilpa P, Balakrishna K, Murali HS, Batra HV. Incidence and multiplex PCR based detection of trichothecene chemotypes of Fusarium culmorum isolates collected from freshly harvested Maize kernels in Southern India. Braz J Microbiol 2013;44:401-6.

Koteswara Rao V, Ramana MV, Girisham S, Reddy SM. Culture media and factors influencing ochratoxin a production by two species of penicillium isolated from poultry feeds. Natl Acad Sci Lett 2013;36:101-10.

Shilpa P, Koteswara Rao V, Girisham S, Reddy SM. Natural incidence of fusarial mycotoxins in finger millet [Eleusine coracana L.] of AP, India. Asiatic J Biotechnol Resor 2011;2:392-402.

Bhat R, Rai RV, Karim AA. Mycotoxins in food and feed: Present status and future concerns. Comp Rev Food Sci Food Safety 2010;9:57-81.

Wilson A, Simpson D, Chandler E, Jennings P, Nicholson P. Development of PCR assays for the detection and differentiation of Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium langsethiae. FEMS Microbiol Lett 2004;233:69–76.

Fredlund E, Gidlund A, Pettersson H, Olsen M, Börjesson T. Real-time PCR detection of Fusarium species in Swedish oats and correlation to T-2 and HT-2 toxin content. World Mycotox J 2010;3:77–88.

O’Donnell K, Ward TJ, Geiser DM, Kistler HC, Aoki T. Genealogical concordance between the mating type locus and seven other nuclear genes supports formal recognition of nine phylogenetically distinct species within the Fusarium graminearum clade. Fungal Genet Biol 2004;41:600–23.

Filtenborg O, Frisvad TC, Samson R A. Specific association of fungi in foods and influence of physical environmental factors. In: RA Samson, ES Hoekstra, JC Frisvad, O Filtenborg, Eds. Introduction to food-and airborne fungi utrecht: Centralbureau voor Schimmelculture; 2000;6:306-20.

Samson RA, Hoekstra, Van Oorschot CN. Introduction to food-borne fungi. Institute of the royal Netherlands. Acad Arts Sci 1984;217-36.

Nelson PE, Toussoun TA, Marasas WF. Fusarium species: an illustrated manual for identification. The Pennsylvania State University Press: University Park; 1983. p. 193.

Koteswara Rao V, Venkataramana M, Girisham S, Reddy SM. Influence of carbon and nitrogen source on ochratoxin A by two species of Penicillium isolated from poultry feeds. Arch Phytopathol Plant Protection 2012;45:1917-27.

Brzonkalik K, Dominik Hümmer, Christoph Syldatk, Anke Neumann. Influence of pH and carbon to nitrogen ratio on mycotoxin production by Alternaria alternata in submerged cultivation. AMB Express 2012;2:1-28.

Narasimha Rao K, Vijaypal Reddy B, Girisham S, Reddy SM. Factors influencing fumonisins [B1] production by Fusarium moniliforme. Indian J Sci Technol 2010;3:213–5.

Payne GA. Ear and kernel rots. In: White DG, ed. Compendium of corn diseases. The American Phytopathol Society Press: St Paul; 1999. p. 44–7.

Goswami RS, Kistler HC. Heading for disaster: Fusarium graminearum on cereal crops. Mol Plant Pathol 2004;5:515–25.

Pestka JJ. Toxicological mechanisms and potential health effects of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol. World J Mycotoxin 2010;3:323–47.

Wegulo SN. Factors influencing deoxynivalenol accumulation in small grain cereals. Toxins 2012;4:1157–80.

Ferreira NP, Pitout MJ. The biosynthesis of ochratoxin. J South Afr Chem Inst 1969;22:S1.

Medina A, Mateo EM, Valle Algarra FM, Mateo F, Mateo R, Jimenez M. Influence of nitrogen and carbon sources on the production of ochratoxin A by ochratoxigenic strains of Aspergillus spp. isolated from grapes. Int J Food Microbiol 2008;122:93–9.

Shilpa P, Koteswara Rao V, Girisham S, Reddy SM. Factors influence on growth, DON and NIV production by two species of Fusarium isolated from Finger millets [Eleusine coracana L.]. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:11:312-7.

Wheeler KA, Hurdman BA, Pitt JF. Influence of pH on the growth of some toxigenic species of Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium spp. Int J Food Microbiol 1991;12:141-50.



How to Cite

Shilpa, P., V. K. Rao, K. N. Rao, S. Girisham, and S. M. Reddy. “INFLUENCE OF CARBON AND NITROGEN SOURCE ON GROWTH, DON AND NIV PRODUCTION BY TWO SPECIES OF FUSARIUM ISOLATED FROM FINGER MILLETS”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 7, no. 3, Mar. 2015, pp. 136-9,



Original Article(s)