• Nesy E A KKTM Govt. College, pullut Kodungallur
  • Lizzy Mathew K K T M Govt College


Cardiac glycosides, Densitogram, HPTLC, Peruvoside


Objective: Thevetia peruviana, an invasive plant with several cardioactive glycosides are grown in different localities of Kerala, India with three colour blooms. Present study was carried out to detect various cardiac glycosides in air dried samples; and soxhlet extracts of shade dried, powdered leaves of the three morphovariants, using spectrophotometry and chromatography.

Methods: Determination for total cardiac glycosides in dried samples were carried out at 495 nm, using Baljet's reagent. After preliminary screening on silica coated micro TLC glass plates using chloroform, methanol mobile phase (8:2), separation of various cardiac glycosides and quantification of ‘Peruvoside' (a valuable cardiotonic drug), was achieved using HPTLC, on silica gel 60F254 plates at 220 nm, for CH (chloroform) and EA (ethyl acetate) fractions.

Results: About 2.5-3.37 % of total cardiac glycosides were detected in powdered leaves. Among the successive extracts, both CH (9-11) and EA fractions (8-12) occupied different forms of cardiac glycosides, and a good amount of peruvoside was detected either in single or in two isomeric forms. The quantity of the drug varied in the order white (8.52 %)>orange (7.16)>yellow (4.97 %) among the three studied plant samples.

Conclusion: Peruvoside, a notable drug for congestive heart failure has been reported to have anticancerous properties apart from its cardiotonic efficacy. Hence, the leaves can be effectively utilized for the successful isolation of this potent drug and other glycosides, without endangering the existence of this taxon.



Download data is not yet available.


Knight AP, Walter PG. Plants affecting the cardiovascular system. In: A Guide to Plant Poisoning of Animals in North America, Ithaca, New York, USA, International Veterinary Information Service; 2002.

Vardanyan R, Hruby V. Synthesis of Essential Drugs. 1st Edition. Elsevier, Amsterdam; 2006.

Bisset NG. Cardiac glycosides Part IV, Apocynaceae: A preliminary Paper Chromatographic Study of the Glycosides from Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum. Ann Bogor 1961;4(2):145-52.

Abe F, Yamauchi T, Wan ASC. Cardiac glycosides from the Leaves of Thevetia neriifolia. Phytochem 1992;31(9):3189-93.

Siddiqui S, Siddiqui BS, Adil Q, Begum S. Cardenolides and Triterpenoids of the Leaves of Thevetia neriifolia. Phytochem 1992;31(10):3541-6.

Kohls S, Scholz-Bottcher BM, Teske J, Zark P, Rullkotter J. Cardiac glycosides from Yellow Oleander (Thevetia peruviana) seeds. Phytochem 2012;75:114-27.

El-Olemy MM, Al-Muhtadi FJ, Afifi AFA. Experimental Phytochemistry: A Laboratory Manual. Saudi Arabia, King Saud University Press; 1994.

Harborne JB. Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. 3rd Edn. New Delhi: Springer (India) private Ltd; 1973.

Patel RB, Patel MR, Batel BG. Chapter 3. Experimental aspects and implementation of HPTLC. In: Srivastava MM editor. High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography (HPTLC). New York, Springer, Heidelberg Dordrecht, London; 2011.

Nesy EA, Mathew L. Quantification of peruvoside (A Cardiotonic drug for Congestive heart failure) Using HPTLC fingerprinting from Withered Flowers of Thevetia neriifolia, Juss. Indo Am J Pharm Res 2014;4(06):2766-72.

Nesy EA, Mathew L, Comparative analysis of cardiac glycosides and quantification of peruvoside from Thevetia neriifolia, Juss fruit rind extracts through HPTLC Fingerprinting. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6(8):412-5.

Nesy EA, Mathew L. Detection and quantification of cardiotonic drug peruvoside using HPTLC from Thevetia neriifolia, Juss Seed Extracts. Int J Pharm Sci Inv 2014;3(4):11-6.

Oluwaniyi OO, Ibiyemi SA. Extractability of Thevetia peruviana glycosides with Alcohol mixture. Afr J Biotechnol 2007;6(18):2166-70.

Ayinde BO, Ogunwole OA, Majekodunmi BC, Oikeh I. Proximate and cardiac glycoside composition of thevetia (Thevetia neriifolia. Juss) seed as affected by soaking in water, Brine and ethanol. J Agric Sci 2013;5(11):201-7.

Sun NC, Lizibor NI. The glycosides of Thevetia peruviana. Izuch. I. Ispol’3 Lekartstv Rastil Resursor USSR, Leningrad: medical South bay; 1964. p. 253-5.

Hollman A. Plants and cardiac glycosides. Br Heart J 1985;54:258-61.

Reich E, Schibli A. High-performance thin-layer chromatography for the analysis of medicinal plants. New York: Thieme Medical Publishers; 2006.

Shah B, Seth AK. Textbook of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 1st edition. New Delhi, Elseiver India Pvt. Ltd; 2010.

Kreis W, Reinhard E. Selective uptake and vacuolar storage of primary cardiac glycosides by suspension-cultured Digitalis lanata cells. J Plant Physiol 1987;128:311-26.

Wink M. Physiology of secondary product formation in plants; 1990. p. 23-41.

Melero CP, Medarde M, Feliciano S. A short review on cardiotonic steroids and their aminoguanidine analogues. Molecules 2000;5:51-81.

Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB. Pharmacognosy, 42nd Edn. Pune: Nirali Prakashan; 2008.

Montano JMC, Moron EB, Orta ML, Navas DM, Dominguez IG, Lazaro ML. Evaluating the cancer therapeutic potential of cardiac glycosides. BioMed Res Int 2014. Available from: URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/794930; 2014.

Newman RA, Yang P, Pawlus AD, Block KI. Cardiac glycosides as novel therapeutic agents. Molecular Inventions 2008;8(1):36-49.



How to Cite

A, N. E., and L. Mathew. “HPTLC PROFILING ON CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES OF THEVETIA PERUVIANA LEAF EXTRACTS OF THREE MORPHOVARIANT PLANTS GROWN IN KERALA, INDIA”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 7, no. 6, June 2015, pp. 191-5, https://journals.innovareacademics.in/index.php/ijpps/article/view/5775.



Original Article(s)