BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF BULGARIAN FOLIA BETULAE DRY EXTRACT
Keywords:Folia Betulaeextract, HPLC identification, Biological activity
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the biological activity of dry Folia Betulae (FB) extract.
Methods: Extracts from birch leaves were obtained by different technological methodsâ€“maceration and percolation, extraction with different concentrations of ethanol, changes in temperature regimen. The influence of the technological factors on the content of the biologically active substances (BAS) was examined. A phytochemical characterization of the extracts and their standardization were made, according to important groups of BASâ€“flavonoids (rutin, quercetin) and terpenes (betulin and betulinic acid), by means of HPLC methods for detection and quantitative determination. A model extract, with optimal content of BAS was chosen for subsequent in vitro investigation of its biological activity. Antimicrobial activity was studied via in vitro tests using bacterial isolatesâ€“Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The physiological activity was investigated by using in vitro test with smooth muscle strips. The antiproliferative activity of FB extract on eukaryotic cells was examined on cell cultures in vitro. Two cell cultures were used: the mouse lymphoma cell line L5178Y and the serum-free McCoy-Plovdiv cells.
Results: The dry extract from FB has a doseâ€“dependent antibacterial effect. The bactericidal effect on Staphylococcus aureus is stronger than the one on Escherichia coli. Results prove that adding the extract leads to stimulating effect on muscle contractility. It demonstrates biological activity, expressed as changes in cell morphology, proliferation and vitality as well as initiation of apoptosis.
Conclusion: The results obtained largely overlap with literature data and explain some of the applications of this plant in traditional medicine.
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