• Mostafa A. El-sayed Laser Dynamics Laboratory, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA
  • Nemat A. Yassin Departments of Pharmacology
  • Ali A. Shabaka Departments of Pharmacology
  • Osama A. El-shabrawy Departments of Pharmacology
  • Sawsan S. Mahmoud Departments of Pharmacology
  • Siham M. El-shenawy Departments of Pharmacology
  • Marwa A. El-shaer Pathology, National Research Centre
  • Nabila S. Hassan Pathology, National Research Centre
  • Emad A. Al-ashkar Spectroscopy-Laser Group
  • Wael H. Eisa Spectroscopy-Laser Group
  • Rehab F. Abdel-rahman Pathology, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt


Pegylated gold nanorods, Intravenous, Intramuscular, Subcutaneous, Acute, Subchronic, Chronic toxicity


Objective: assessment of acute, subchronic and chronic toxicity of pegylated gold nanorods (PEG-gold NRs) in Wistar rats of both sex in three routes of administration {intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC)}.

Methods: in the acute toxicity study; PEG-gold NRs were injected once by three different routes, blood and tissue samples were collected after 14 d. In the subchronic and chronic studies; PEG-gold NRs were injected via three different routes, at 0.225, 0.45 and 0.9 mg/kg, once daily for 5 consecutive days, followed by a 23-day recovery period, for three and six months in the subchronic and chronic toxicity studies, respectively. Hematology, urinalysis, biochemical and histopathological examinations were conducted at the end of each study.

Results: acute toxicity showed a significant decrease in serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels after single IV, IM and SC injection of PEG-gold NRs, while serum creatinine was significantly increased after IV and IM injection. Subchronic results revealed a significant decrease in serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels. The chronic study showed a significant decrease in serum triglycerides, sodium levels, total leukocytes count and significant increase in serum creatinine after IV injection. IM injection resulted in significant decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides, cholesterol, sodium levels and total leukocytes count. SC injection resulted in significant decrease in serum triglycerides, glucose, red blood cell count with increased creatinine and hematocrit.

Conclusion: PEG-gold NRs at the three examined doses is apparently safe since no serious signs of toxicity were detected. IM and SC routes of injection were irritating, so we recommend the IV route.



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How to Cite

El-sayed, M. A., N. A. Yassin, A. A. Shabaka, O. A. El-shabrawy, S. S. Mahmoud, S. M. El-shenawy, M. A. El-shaer, N. S. Hassan, E. A. Al-ashkar, W. H. Eisa, and R. F. Abdel-rahman. “TOXICOLOGICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF GOLD NANORODS IN NORMAL RATS”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 7, no. 12, Dec. 2015, pp. 41-50,



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