ISOLATION OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI FROM ARTEMISIA ANNUA, L AND IDENTIFICATION OF THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL COMPOUND USING BIOAUTOGRAPHY METHOD
Keywords:Endophytic fungi, Artemisia annua, L, antibacterial, antifungal, bioautography
Objective: The aims of this study were (1) to isolate endophytic fungi from A. annua, (2) to find out their activity in inhibiting microorganisms' growth and (3) to investigate the active compound of the selected fungus.
Methods: A. annua herb was cleaned by putting it in running water and then the leaves, stems, and roots were separated. They were washed using chlorinated water, 70% ethanol, and distilled sterile water successively. Each part of the plant was cut into small pieces, grown in potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium, and incubated at room temperature. The endophytic fungi obtained were tested for their antimicroorganism activity against bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis, and the fungi Malassezia furfur and Candida albicans. Identification of active compound was done using bio-autography method.
Results: This study obtained 7 endophytic fungi successfully and they were encoded IP-1, IP-2, IP-3, IP-4, IP-5, IP-6, and IP-7. All the fungi demonstrated antibacterial or antifungal activity, with IP-4 had the greatest activity. IP-4 showed septate brown hyphae, elliptical to cylindrical conidia, pale to dark brown in colony color, terminal and intercalary swellings conidiophores. Extract of endophytic fungi (IP-4) had only one antimicrobial compound indicated by the presence of clear zone at Rf value of 0.38 which could not be detected by using spray reagents.
Conclusion: Endophytic fungi were isolated successfully from the leaves of A. annua demonstrated antibacterial and antifungal activities. From 7endophytic fungi obtained, fungi encoded IP-4 had the greatest activity. It was classified intoÂ Cladosporium sp. By using bioautography method, the active compound was assumed as dimethyl cladosporine.
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