• Sl. Vijaya Kumar Hospital Sultan Abdul Halim
  • Ashutosh Sr. Melaka-Manipal Medical College
  • Gokulshankar S. Faculty of Medicine, AIMST University, Sungai Petani, Malaysia
  • Ranjith Ms. Quest International University Perak
  • Mohanty Bk. University Kuala Lumpur Royal College of Medicine Perak
  • Lim My. Hospital Sultan Abdul Halim


Diabetic foot infections, Diabetic foot microbiology, Salvageable diabetic foot infection, Bacterial profile, Antimicrobial susceptibility


Objective: The objective is to study bacterial pathogens isolated in diabetic foot infection (DFI) and their sensitivity pattern to antibiotics commonly used in the management of DFI in the salvageable and unsalvageable groups of patients in a district hospital.

Methods: 122 patients with diabetic limb infections treated at the Orthopedic Department of Hospital Sultan Abdul Halim, Sungai Petani, Kedah State in Malaysia. Clinically, limb infections were classified as salvageable and unsalvageable infections. Salvageable-mild, superficial/deep, localized ulcer with no systemic derangements necessitating conservative treatment or surgical procedures with minor amputations of limb (toe/ray amputation). Unsalvageable-deep seated extensive or spreading ulcers threatening the integrity of limb with or without toxic symptoms or metabolic derangement and could result in major limb amputation. A standard questionnaire was used to collect demographic, clinical and microbiological details of patients in both groups. Co-morbid illnesses, type/severity of limb infection during presentation and results of routine blood investigations were recorded. Details of nature of each specimen, species of isolate pathogen and sensitivity pattern to antibiotic of each clinical isolates were recorded.

Results: 62 and 60 patients respectively belonged to the salvageable and unsalvageable groups. Only 11.66% presented with evidence of toxemia in the unsalvageable group. ESBL was the commonest nosocomial organisms. Percentage of organism sensitivity was most to vancomycin, ceftazidime, and gentamicin.

Conclusion: All severe infections do not present with toxemia in diabetic patients. Gram-negative organisms were predominant in both groups although Staphylococcal organisms were the single largest group in the unsalvageable group. 3rd generation antibiotics are more useful in its control.



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How to Cite

Kumar, S. V., A. Sr., G. S., R. Ms., M. Bk., and L. My. “IS BACTERIOLOGY A CONTRIBUTING FACTOR IN UNSALVAGEABLE NATURE OF DIABETIC FOOT INFECTIONS?–A STUDY IN A DISTRICT HOSPITAL IN MALAYSIA”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 8, no. 1, Jan. 2016, pp. 262-5,



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