• Kadry A. Elbakry Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, New Damietta city, Egypt
  • Camelia A. Abdel Malak Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, New Damietta City, Egypt
  • Mahmoud M. Howas Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, New Damietta city, Egypt


Carbon tetrachloride, Cytokines, Nil, Nil, IL-2, Propolis and honey bees


Objective: To evaluate the role of some inflammatory cytokines in hepatic injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Also, the effects of honey bee and propolis extract to modulate the role of these cytokines.

Methods: Fifty female Wister rats were divided into five groups, 10 per each group. After 6 w of all treatments, rats were sacrificed, whole blood and serum were collected to determine the number of white blood cells (WBCs), percentage of granulocytes, percentage of lymphocytes and the level of some cytokines such as gamma interferon(INF-γ), tumor necrosis factor(TNF-α) and interleukin-2(IL-2).

Results: CCl4 administration resulted in significant increase in the number of WBCs and percentage of granulocytes (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively). After treatment with honey and propolis, the number of WBCs was decreased significantly in the case of propolis treatment (P<0.05) compared with CCl4 group. The levels of TNF-α and INF-γ cytokines were significantly decreased (P<0.05) after treatment with honey or propolis compared with CCl4 group. However, there is no significant change in the level of IL-2 after treatment of CCl4 administered rats with honey or propolis.

Conclusion: The present study suggested that honey and propolis can improve the immune disorders induced by CCl4 in rats by modulating the levels of inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, and IFN-γ.



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How to Cite

Elbakry, K. A., C. A. Abdel Malak, and M. M. Howas. “IMMUNOMODULATORY ROLE OF HONEY AND PROPOLIS ON CARBON TETRACHLORIDE (CCl4) INJECTED RATS”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 7, no. 12, Dec. 2015, pp. 259-62,



Original Article(s)