• Aparna Srivastava Centre for Innovative Studies in Herbal Drug Technology, Department of Studies in Botany, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysuru 570006
  • Raveesha Koteshwar Anandrao Centre for Innovative Studies in Herbal Drug Technology, Department of Studies in Botany, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysuru 570006


Antimicrobial activity, Biochemical screening, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fungal endophytes, Paecilomyces lilacinus


Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of fungal endophytes isolated from leaves of Prosopis juliflora against the important plant and human pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

Methods: Antimicrobial screening was done by agar diffusion and dual culture method. The ethyl acetate extract of the endophytes which recorded good activity were subjected to disc diffusion assay and determination of MIC.

Results: A total of 446 fungal isolates were recovered from 400 leaflet segments representing 44 fungal endophytes. Species of Cladosporium, Colletotrichum and Fusarium were the dominant genera. Seventeen endophytic fungi out of 44 showed significant antibacterial activity against one or more test bacteria. Ethyl acetate extract of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides exhibited highly significant broad spectrum antibacterial activity. Eleven endophytes showed antifungal activity against all test fungi. Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma sp. showed significant antifungal activity with growth inhibition of 50% and above in dual culture. The ethyl acetate extract of Paecilomyces lilacinus also showed significant antifungal activity in disc diffusion. This is the first report of antimicrobial potential of the endophyte Paecilomyces lilacinus. Preliminary biochemical characterization of the active ethyl acetate extract of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Paecilomyces lilacinus showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, sterols and coumarins.

Conclusion: Results of the study paves the way for further studies on the isolation and characterization of antimicrobial principles and their evaluation for the agricultural and medical application.



Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Aparna Srivastava, Centre for Innovative Studies in Herbal Drug Technology, Department of Studies in Botany, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysuru 570006

Department of Studies in Botany

University of Mysore

Raveesha Koteshwar Anandrao, Centre for Innovative Studies in Herbal Drug Technology, Department of Studies in Botany, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysuru 570006

Department of Studies in Botany

University of Mysore



Tan RX, Zou WX. Endophytes: a rich source of functional metabolites. Nat Prod Rep 2001;18:448-59.

Petrini O, Sieber TN, Toti L, Viret O. Ecology, metabolite production and substrate utilization in endophytic fungi. Nat Toxin 1992;1:185-96.

Schulz B, Boyle C, Draeger S, Aust HJ, Römmert AK, Krohn K. Endophytic fungi: a source of novel biologically active secondary metabolites. Mycol Res 2002;106:996-04.

Strobel G, Daisy B. Bioprospecting for microbial endophytes and their natural products. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2003;67:491-02.

Azevedo JL, Maccheroni WJr, Pereira JO, Araújo WL. Endophytic microorganisms: a review on insect control and recent advances on tropical plants. Electron J Biotechnol 2000;3:40-65.

Strobel G, Daisy B, Castillo U, Harper J. Natural products from endophytic microorganisms. J Nat Prod 2004;67:257-68.

Kharwar RN, Verma SK, Mishra A, Gond SK, Sharma VK, Afreen T, et al. Assessment of diversity, distribution and antibacterial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from a medicinal plant Adenocalymma alliaceum Miers. Symbiosis 2011;55:39-46.

Suryanarayanan TS, Thirunavukkarasub N, Govindarajulub MB, Sassec F, Jansend R, Murali TS. Fungal endophytes and bioprospecting. Fungal Biol Rev 2009;23:9-19.

Strobel G, Yang X, Sears J, Kramer R, Sidhu RS, Hess WM. Taxol from Pestalotiopsis microspora, an endophytic fungus of Taxus wallichiana. Microbiology 1996;142:435-40.

Verma VC, Gond SK, Kumar A, Kharwar RN, Strobel GA. The endophytic mycoflora of bark, leaf, and stem tissues of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) from Varanasi (India). Microbial Ecol 2007;54:119-25.

Gond SK, Verma VC, Kumar A, Kumar V, Kharwar RN. Study of endophytic fungal community from different parts of Aegle marmelos Correae. (Rutaceae) from Varanasi (India). World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2007;23:1371-5.

Tejesvi MV, Mahesh B, Nalini MS, Prakash HS, Kini KR, Subbiah V, et al. Endophytic fungal assemblages from inner bark and twig of Terminalia arjuna W.&A. (Combretaceae). World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2005;21:1535-40.

Gautam AK. Diversity of fungal endophytes in some medicinal plants of Himachal Pradesh, India. Arch Phytopathol Plant Prot 2014;47:537-44.

Elavazhagan T, Jayakumar S, Balakrishnan V, Chitravadivu C. Isolation of endophytic bacteria from the invasive alien weed, Mikania micrantha and their molecular characterization. Am Eurasian J Sci Res 2009;4:154-8.

Mukhtar I, Khokhar I, Sobia MS, Ali A. Diversity of epiphytic and endophytic microorganisms in some dominant weeds. Pakistan J Weed Sci Res 2010;16:287-97.

Ahmad N, Muhammad H, Khan SA, Khan AL, Lee IJ, Shin DH. Gibberellin-producing endophytic fungi isolated from Monochoria vaginalis. J Microbiol Biotechnol 2010;20:1744-9.

Strobel GA. Microbial gifts from rain forests. Can J Plant Pathol 2002;24:14-20.

Zou WX, Meng JC, Lu H, Chen GX, Shi GX, Zhang TY, et al. Metabolites of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, an endophytic fungus in Artemisia mongolica. J Nat Prod 2000;63:1529-30.

Liu CH, Zou WX, Lu H, Tan RX. Antifungal activity of Artemisia annua endophyte cultures against phytopathogenic fungi. J Biotechnol 2001;88:277-82.

Dai JQ, Krohn K, Florke U, Draeger S, Schulz B, Kiss-Szikszai A. Metabolites from the endophytic fungus Nodulisporium sp. from Juniperus cedre. Eur J Org Chem 2006;34:3498-06.

Kjer J, Wray V, Edrada-Ebel R, Ebel R, Pretsch A, Lin WH, et al. Xanalteric acids I and II and related phenolic compounds from an endophytic Alternaria sp. isolated from the mangrove plant Sonneratia alba. J Nat Prod 2009;72:2053-7.

Kharwar RN, Verma VC, Kumar A, Gond SK, Harper JK, Hess WM, et al. Javanicin, an antibacterial Naphthoquinone from an Endophytic fungus of Neem, Chloridium sp. Curr Microbiol 2009;58:233-8.

Arivudainambi US, Anand TD, Shanmugaiah V, Karunakaran C, Rajendran A. Novel bioactive metabolites producing endophytic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2011;61:340-5.

De-Siqueira V, Conti R, De-Araújo J, Souza-Motta C. Endophytic fungi from the medicinal plant Lippia sidoides Cham. and their antimicrobial activity. Symbiosis 2011;53:89-95.

Ramesha A, Srinivas C. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts of endophytic fungi isolated from Plumeria acuminata L. and Plumeria obtusifolia L. Eur J Exp Biol 2014;4:35-43.

Zhang Q, Zhang J, Yang L, Zhang L, Jiang D, Chen W, et al. Diversity and biocontrol potential of endophytic fungi in Brassica napus. Biol Control 2014;72:98-108.

Pasiecznik NM, Felker P, Harris PJC, Harsh LN, Cruz G, Tewari JC, et al. The Prosopis juliflora-Prosopis pallida complex: A monograph. Coventry, UK, HDRA; 2001.

Raghavendra MP, Satish S, Raveesha KA. Alkaloid extract of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. on sorghum seed mould. J Biopestic 2010;3:333-42.

Singh S, Swapnil, Verma SK. Antibacterial properties of alkaloid rich fractions obtained from various parts of Prosopis juliflora. Int J Pharma Sci Res 2011;2:114-20.

Raghavendra MP. Isolation and characterization of antimicrobial of plant origin. Ph. D. Thesis, University of Mysore, Mysore, Karnataka, India; 2007.

Morton DJ, Stroube WH. Antagonistic and stimulating effects of soil micro-organism of Sclerotium. Phytopathol 1955; 45:417-20.

Živković S, Stojanović S, Ivanović Ž, Gavrilović V, Popović T, Balaž J. Screening of antagonistic activity of microorganisms against Colletotrichum acutatum and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Arch Biol Sci Belgrade 2010;62:611-23.

Bauer AM, Kirby WMM, Sherris JC, Turck M. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. Am J Clin Pathol 1966;43:493-6.

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Reference method for broth dilution antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts: approved standard. CLSI 3rd. edn. Wayne; 2008.

Trease GE, Evans WC. Pharmacognosy.11th ed. London: Bailliere Tindall; 1989.

Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods-A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. 3rd ed. London: Chapman and Hall Publications; 1998.

Kusari S, Spiteller M. Are we ready for industrial production of bioactive plant secondary metabolites utilizing endophytes? Nat Prod Rep 2011;28:1203-7.

Aly AH, Debbab A, Kjer J, Proksch P. Fungal endophytes from higher plants: a prolific source of phytochemicals and other bioactive natural products. Fungal Diversity 2010;41:1-16.

Collado IG. Secondary metabolites isolated from Colletotrichum species. Nat Prod Rep 2003;20:426-31.

Bonants PJM, Fitters PFL, Thijs H, Denbelder E, Waalwijk C, Henfling J. A basic serine-protease from Paecilomyces lilacinus with biological activity against Meloidogyne hapla eggs. Microbiol-UK 1995;141:775-84.

Liu YJ, Zhai CY, Liu Y, Zhang KQ. Nematicidal activity of Paecilomyces spp. and isolation of a novel active compound. J Microbiol 2009;47:248-52.



How to Cite

Srivastava, A., and R. K. Anandrao. “ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF FUNGAL ENDOPHYTES ISOLATED FROM LEAVES OF PROSOPIS JULIFLORA (SW.) DC. AN IMPORTANT WEED”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 7, no. 12, Dec. 2015, pp. 128-36,



Original Article(s)