• Ghazal Zrekah Master Student, Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria
  • Dima Al. Diab Tishreen University
  • Ayat Abboud Tishreen University


Infant formula, Oxidation, Protein carbonyls, Peroxide value


Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate fat and protein oxidation levels in imported infant formulas [infant formula (IFa1) and follow up formula (IFa2)]; which are available in Syrian market. In addition, the aim was to determine the best conditions for preparing the feeds, and for storage of the opened cans.

Methods: Fat oxidation was evaluated by peroxide value (PV) using the iodometric method. Protein oxidation was assessed by the selective indicator protein carbonyls (PCs), using the spectrophotometry method at 280 nm to measure the protein content. Next, the effects of storage at room temperature and refrigerator temperature on both fat and protein oxidation were studied. Furthermore, we studied the changes on fat and proteins oxidation caused by reconstituting the feeds by 40 áµ’C and 70 áµ’C water.

Results: PV levels of IFa1 ranged between 0.88 and 1.30 mEqO2 ∕ kg, and were higher than those of IFa2 which ranged between 0.76 and 1.24 mEqO2 ∕ kg. Similarly, PCs levels of IFa1 ranged between 40.5 and 87.6 m mol ∕ kg protein, and were also higher than PCs levels of IFa2 which ranged between 27.78 and 82.96 m mol ∕ kg protein. We found no differences between PCs levels of samples stored at refrigerator and room temperature for 21 d, while PV levels of samples stored at refrigerator temperature were lower than those stored at room temperature for 21 d. For preparation conditions, no differences were observed in oxidation levels between the feed reconstituted by 40 ᵒC and 70 ᵒC water.

Conclusion: All IF samples available in Syrian market showed oxidation levels using PV and PCs. Additionally, it is better to keep the opened IF cans at refrigerator temperature than keeping them at room temperature, especially for fat oxidation. Finally, no differences were observed by reconstitution IF by 40 áµ’C and 70 áµ’C water.



Download data is not yet available.


Gonz!ales AS, Naranjo GB, Malec LS, Vigo MS. Available lysine, protein digestibility and lactulose in commercial infant formulas. INT Dairy J 2003;13:95-9.

Clemens RA, Hernell O, Michaelsen KF. Milk and milk product s in human nutrition. Nestlé work shop program. INT Dairy J 2011;67:17–28.

Belitz HD, Grosch WS, Chieberle P. Food Chemistry. 4th. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Germany; 2009.

Hanley KJ. Experimental quantification and modeling of attrition of infant formulae during pneumatic conveying. PhD thesis with permission, University of College Cork; 2011. p. 1-19.

Yum J. The effects of breast milk versus infant formulae on cognitive development. Br J Dev Disabilities 2007;13:2-5.

Fenaille F, Guy PA. Contribution of mass spectrometry to assess quality of milk-based products. Mass Spectrum Rev 2006;25:290–326.

Fenaille F, Paresiod V, Visan P, Populaire S, Tabet JC, Guy PA. Modification of milk constituents during processing: a preliminary benchmarking study. Int Dairy J 2006;16:728-39.

Stanciuc N. Traceability indicators for heat treatments of Milk. Innovative Rom Food Biotechnol 2009;5:10-7.

Lewis MJ, Deeth HC. Milk processing and quality management. ch.7: Heat Treatment of Milk. Willey-Black Well, UK; 2008;19:168-98.

Nuristen N. The maillard reaction chemistry, Biochemistry and Implications. Roy Soc Chemitry J, United Kingdom; 2005. p. 17-43.

Żurowska DM, Stołyhwo A. Content of furosine in infant formula and follow on formula. Pol J Food Nutr Sci 2007;57,2:185–90.

Nadal RM, Chaves-Servin JL, Castellote AI, Riverom M, Lopes-sabater MC. Oxidation stability of the lipid, fraction in milk powder formulas. Elsevier 2007;100:356-63.

Shahidi F, Zhong Y. Bailey’s industrial oil and fat products. 6th. Vol 6. Lipid oxidation: Measurement methods. John Wiley and Sons, USA; 2005. p. 357-80.

Shilpha HD, Bijoor AR. Malondialdehyde as marker lipid peroxidation in acute myocardial infraction patients. MRIMS J Health Sci 2009;1:20-3.

Salvayer AN, Caotrieux C, Ingueneau C, Salvayer R. Advanced oxidative lipid peroxidation end products in oxidative damage to proteins. Potential role in diseases and therapeutic prospects for the inhibitors. Br J Pharmacol 2008;153:6-20.

Zhang W, Xiao S, Ahn DU. Protein oxidation: basic principles and implications for meat quality. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2013;53:1191–201.

Aragon IB, Pischetsrieder M, Leclere J, Morales FJ, Hasenkopf K, Kientchengel R, et al. Assessment of protein glycation markers in infant formulas. Elsevier 2004;87:253–9.

Suzuki YJ, Carini M, Butterfield A. Protein Carbonylation. Antioxidants and redox signaling. Liebert Inc J 2010;12:323-4.

Fenaille F, Parisod V, Tabet JC, Guy PA. Carbonylation of milk powder as a consequenc e of processing conditions. Proteomics 2005;5:3097-104.

Rogowska A, Wojdela K, Nedic O, Baron CP, Griffith HR. Analysis of protein carbonylation-pitfalls and promis e in commonly used methods. Free Radical Res 2014;48:1145-62.

Vignolles ML, Romain J, Christalle L, Pierre S. Free fat, surface fat and dairy powders: interactions between process and product. a review. Lait J 2007;87:187–236.

Nieisen SS. Food analysis. 2nd ed. Aspen publisher Int, USA; 1998. p. 227-8.

Estevez M, Ollilainen V, Heinonen M. Analysis of protein oxidation markersa–aminoadipic and γ-Glutamic semialdehydes in food proteins using liquid chromatography (LC)-electrospray ionization (ESI)–multistage tandem mass spectrometry (MS). J Agric Food Chem 2009;57:3901–10.

Agostoni C, Axelsson I. Soy protein infant formulae and follow-on formulae: a commentary by the Espghan committee on nutrition. J Pediatr Gastro Enterol Nutr 2006;42:352-61.

Jovanovic S, Barac M, Macej M. Whey proteins–properties and possibility of application. Mljekarstvo 2005;55:215-33.

Sun YE, Wei W, Hong CW, Chao L. Autoxidation of unsaturated lipids in food emulsion. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2011;51:453–66.

Virginia LB. Which Milk is Fresh? IJDSP 2014;1:1-6.



How to Cite

Zrekah, G., D. A. Diab, and A. Abboud. “DETERMINATION OF PROTEIN AND FAT OXIDATION LEVELS IN IMPORTED INFANT FORMULA AVAILABLE IN SYRIA”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 8, no. 2, Feb. 2016, pp. 169-72,



Original Article(s)