EFFECT OF SUB-CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO CHROMIUM ON HAEMATOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF MALE ALBINO RAT
Keywords:Chromium VI (K2Cr2O7), Haematological parameters, Biochemical parameters
Objectives : Â Exposure to chromium, the transition element found in many compounds of earth's crust, leads to various health hazards including cancer, dermatitis, damage of liverÂ and kidneys and reproductive toxicity in both male and female. ToxicÂ effect of chronic exposure to chromium at low environmentally relevant dose is recently recognized and less studied. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of sub-chronic exposure to low doses of chromium VI (K2Cr2O7) on various haematological and biochemical parameters in male albino rats.
Methods : Male albino rats (160Â±10 gm) received 1/25, 1/50 and 1/100 of reported oral LD50 dose of chromium VI (K2Cr2O7) for 90 consecutive days. After treatment, the blood was collected for analysis of various haematological and biochemical parameters.
Results : Â Exposure to chromium VI at 1/25 LD50 dose caused decrease in body weight gain and reduction in the weight of the reproductive organs along with increase in the weight of liver and kidney. Numbers of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and haemoglobin concentration reduced with increase in clotting time. The total sperm count and motility was also reduced in exposed rats. There was decrease in plasma protein and albumin concentration, with increase in plasma glucose and cholesterol level. The activity of enzyme alanine aminotransferase and enzyme aspertate aminotransferase was stimulated in treated rats.
Conclusion : The results of the present study revealed that chronic low doseÂ exposure to chromium VI resulted in a toxic effect in experimental male albino rats.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological profile for chromium. Atlanta: U. S. Department of Health and Human services 2000.
Zhitkovich A. Importance of chromium-DNA adducts in mutagenicity and toxicity of chromium(VI). Chem Res Toxicol. 2005; 18: 3-11.
Valko M., Rhodes C J., Moncol J., Izacovic C M., Mazur M. Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer. Chem. Biol. Interact. 2006; 160: 1-40.
Manerikar RS., Apte AA., Ghole VS. In vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assessment of Cr(VI) using comet assay in earthworm coelomocytes. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 2008; 25: 63-68.
Andersson MA, Grawe KVP, Karisson OM, Abramsson-Zetterberg LAG, Hellman BE. Evaluation of the potential genotoxicity of chromium picolinate in mammalian cells in vivo and in vitro. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2007; 45: 1097-1106.
Banu SK, Samuel JB, Arosh JA, Burghardt RC, Aruldas MM. Lactational exposure to hexavalent chromium delays puberty by impairing ovarian development, steridogenesis and pituitary hormone synthesis in developing wistar rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2008; 232: 180-189.
Helena O., Marcello S., Migual AG., Teresa MS., Maria de Lourdes P., Evaluation of in vivo reproductive toxicity of potassium dichromate in male mice. Experimental and Toxicological Pathology. 2010; 62: 391-404.
Samuel JB., Stanley JA., Vengatesh G., Princess RA., Muthusami S., Roopha DP., et. Al. Ameliorative effect of vitamin C on hexavalent chromium â€“induced delay in sexual maturation and oxidative stress in developing wistar rat ovary and uterus. Toxicol. Ind. Health. 2012; 28: 720-730.
Li H., Chen Q., Li S., Yao W., Li L., Shi X., Wang L., Castranova V., Vallyathen V., Ernst E., Chen C. Effect of Cr(VI) exposure on sperm quality: Human and animal studies. The Annals of Occupational Hygiene. 2001; 45: 505-511.
WHO: Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2003.
Approved guidelines by committee for the purpose of control and supervision of experiments on animals (cpcsea) on the norms and practices for regulation of animal experimentation. ICMR guidelines 2006.
Majumder GC., Biswas R. Evidence for the occurance of ecto (adenosine triphosphate) in rat epididymal spermatozoa. Biochem J. 1979; 183: 737-743.
Jadhav SH., Sarkar SN., Patil RD., Tripathi HC . Effects of subchronic exposure via drinking water to a mixture of eight water contaminating metals: A biochemical and histopathological study in male rats. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol . 2007; 53: 667-677.
Ibrahim N M., Eweis E A., El-Beltagi HS., Abdel-Mobdy YA. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat.Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine.2012;41-46. Doi. 10.1016/ S2221-1691 (11) 60187-1, (2012).
Chandra A.K., Chatterjee A., Ghosh R., Sarkar M. Vitamin E Supplementation Protect chromium (VI) â€“ induced spermatogenesis and steroidogenic disorders in testicular tissues of rats. Food and chemical toxicology. 2010; 48(3): 972-979.
Kim H., Lee S., Jang B. Subchronic inhalation toxicity of soluble hexavalent chromium trioxide in rats. Arch Toxicol. 2004; 78: 363-368.
Shrivastava R., Srivastava S., Upreti RK., Chaturvedi UC. Effects of dengue virus infection on peripheral blood cells of mice exposed to hexavalent chromium with drinking water. Indian J Med Res. 2005; 122: 111-119.
Adjroud O. Effects of potassium dichromate on haematological parameters in female and male wistar albino rats. Ass.Univ.Bull.Environ.res. 2009; 12 (2):87-99.
Balakrishnan R., Satish Kumar CSV., Usha Rani M., Kavita K., Boobalan G., Reddy A Gopala. Evaluation of protective action of Î±-tocoferol in chromium-induced oxidative stress in female reproductive system of rats. 2013; 4(1): 87-93.
Yousif A S., Ahmed A A. Effects of cadmium(Cd) and lead(Pb) on the structure and function of thyroid gland. Afr J Environ Sci Technol. 2009; 3(3):78-85.
Marouani N., Tebourbi O., Mahjoub S., Yacoubi MT., Sakly M., Benkhalifa M., Rhouma KB. Effects of hexavalent chromium on reproductive function of male adult rats. Reprod. Biol. 2012; 12(2):119-33.
How to Cite
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.