DELIBERATE SELF-POISONING IN SOUTH ODISHA: STUDY OF ITS CLINICAL PROFILE AND OUTCOME
Keywords:Deliberate self poisoning, pesticides, organophosphates, plant poisons
Objective: Deliberate self-poisoning is a serious global issue that contributes to significant morbidity and mortality all over the world. The present study was conducted with an objective to identify the common agents used for self-poisoning prevalent in South Odisha and to determine the common clinical features and outcome of such cases.
Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted on 200 patients with deliberate self-poisoning belonging to the age group of 15–70 years over a period of 2 years from August 2017 to September 2019 in Maharaja Krishna Chandra Gajapati Medical College and Hospital, Berhampur, Odisha, India. All the above-mentioned patients admitted to the hospital, were treated with specific antidotes according to the poison ingested. Results were analyzed using appropriate standard statistical methods such as mean, standard deviation, and percentage.
Results: Out of 200 patients, majority were female (65%, n=130) and 35% (n=70) were male; mean age was 38.9 (±16.8) years. Organophosphates, aluminum phosphide, glyphosate, organochlorines, and carbamates were the most common pesticides used as poisoning agents (74.5%, n=149) followed by plant poisons (7%, n=14) which included yellow oleander seed. Overall mortality in our study was 12.5%.
Conclusion: Pesticides and plant poisons were the common agents used in our study for deliberate self-poisoning. Young persons, illiterates, and housewives were commonly involved in suicide attempts. Organophosphate caused majority of deaths.
Hawton K. Sex and suicide. Gender differences in suicidal behaviour. Br J Psychiatry 2000;177:484-5.
Gururaj G, Isaac MK, Subbakrishna DK, Ranjani R. Risk factors for completed suicides: A case-control study from Bangalore, India. Inj Control Saf Promot 2004;11:183-91.
Santosh V, Menon O. A retrospective study of clinical profile of acute poisoning in a tertiary care teaching hospital Kerala, India, during 2014-2016. Int J Sci Stud 2018;67-71
Eddleston M, Buckley NA, Eyer P, Dawson AH. Management of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Lancet 2008;371:597-607.
Prescott K, Stratton R, Freyer A, Hall I, Le Jeune I. Detailed analyses of self-poisoning episodes presenting to a large regional teaching hospital in the U.K. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2009;68:260-8.
Prosser JM, Perrone J, Pines JM. The epidemiology of international non-fatal self-harm poisoning in the United States: 2001-2004. J Med Toxicol 2007;3:20-4.
Zaidan ZA, Burke DT, Dorvlo AS, Al-Naamani A, Al-Suleimani A, Al-Hussaini A, et al. Deliberate self poisoning in Oman. Trop Med Int Health 2002;7:549-56.
Waddy S. Management of the poisoned patient. Anesth Intensive Care Med 2007;8:474-6.
Sharma BK, Harish D, Sharma V, Vij K. The epidemiology of poisoning: An Indian view point. J Forensic Med Toxicol 2002;19:5-11.
Dash SK, Mohanty MK. Sociodemographic profile of poisoning cases. J Indian Acad Forensic Med 2005;27:133-8.
Singh S, Shama BK, Wahi P, Anand BS, Chugh KS. Spectrum of acute poisoning in adults (10 year experiences). J Assoc Physician India 1984;32:561-3.
Singh B, Kishore K, Chaudhary KA. Epidemiological profile of complete suicidal poisoning cases autopsied at autopsy centre, RIMS, Ranchi. Int J Med Toxicol Forensic Med 2017;7:32-42.
Madhavan I, Santhosh LK, Thomas V. Clinical profile and outcome of deliberate self poisoning cases in medical wards. Am J Intern Med 2015;3:5-9.
Das RK. Epidemiology of insecticide poisoning at A.I.I.M.S. Emergency service and role of its detection by gas liquid chromatography in diagnosis. Med Legal Update 2007;7:49-60.
Kora SA, Dodamani GB, Halagali GR, Vijayamahantesh SN, Umakanth B. Socio-demographic profile of the organophosphorous poisoning cases. J Clin Diagn Res 2011;5:953-6.
Siwach SB, Gupta A. The profile of acute poisoning in Haryana-Rohtak study. JAPI 1995;43:756-9.
Singh UK, Chakraborty B, Prasad R. Aluminium phosphide poisoning: A growing concern in pediatric population. Indian Pediatr 1997;34:650-1.
Podosinovikova NP, Soloveva NE, Mukovskii LA, Petrov VV, Matveev BB, Dolgo-Saburov VB. Pharmacological analysis of the pathogenesis of acute poisoning with the synthetic pyrethroid cypermethrin using the hydrobiont Daphnia magna Straus. Eksp Klin Farmakol 2002;65:56-7.
He F, Wang S, Liu L, Chen S, Zhang Z, Sun J. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of acute pyrethroid poisoning. Arch Toxicol 1989;63:54-8.
Roberts DM. Text Book of Adult Emergency Medicine. 4th ed. United Kingdom: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2014. p. 1017-24.
Lee CH, Shih CP, Hsu KH, Hung DZ, Lin CC. The early prognostic factors of glyphosate-surfactant intoxication. Am J Emerg Med 2008;26:275-81.
Ramrakha P, Moore K. Drug overdoses. Oxford Handbook of Acute Medicine. 2nd ed., Ch. 14. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004. p. 791-838.
Reed RP, Conradie FM. The epidemiology and clinical features of paraffin (kerosene) poisoning in rural African children. Ann Trop Paediatr 1997;17:49-55.
Wolfe BM, Brodeur AE, Shields JB. The role of gastrointestinal absorption of kerosene in producing pneumonitis in dogs. J Pediatr 1970;76:867-73.
How to Cite
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.