• MOSTAFA M RADY Department of Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt,
  • MOHAMED A SEIF EL-YAZAL Department of Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt,
  • HANAN AA TAIE Department of Plant Biochemistry, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.
  • SAFIA MA AHMED Department of Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt,



Triticum aestivum, lead, polyamines, osmoprotectants, antioxidantenzyme, growth, yield


Objective: The distribution, growth, development and productivity of wheat plants are greatly affected by various abiotic stresses such as lead (Pb) stress which become one of the most abundant toxic metal in the earth crust. Under the three applied polyamine (PAs) applications, the efficiency of wheat plants to tolerate Pb2+ stress in terms of growth and yield characteristics was noticed to varying degrees.

Methods: The current study focused on the impact of 2.0 mM lead (Pb2+) on growth and performance of wheat plants before and after PAs applications. The sterilized seeds were soaked for 8 h at room temperature, either in distilled water (as a control), 0.25 mM spermine (Spm), 0.50 mM spermidine (Spd), or in 1.0 mM putrescine (Put).

Results: Point out that, better growth and yield characteristics, chlorophyll “a” (Chl-a), chlorophyll “b” (Chl-b), soluble sugars, indoles, and enzymatic antioxidants (i.e., peroxidase (POX), catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, ascorbate oxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and glutathione reductase) and the enzyme α-amylase contents were obtained with seed soaking in 0.25 mM Spm, 0.50 mM Spd, or 1.0 mM Put than those generated with seed soaking in water under 2.0 mM Pb2+ stress. In contrast, the concentration of endogenous Pb2+ was significantly reduced.

Conclusion: Among all tested PAs, 1.0 mM Put showed the best results and thus is recommended, as seed soaking, for wheat to grow well under Pb2+ stress.


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