• Damai Ria Setyawati Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia.
  • Silvia Surini Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia
  • Etik Mardliyati Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), Jakarta, Indonesia.




Central composite design, Entrapment efficiency, Luteolin, Response surface methodology, Transfersome


Objective: This research was carried out to optimize luteolin-loaded transfersome formula with independent variables such as lipid-surfactant (total lipid) concentration and luteolin concentration.
Methods: Luteolin-loaded transfersome was optimized by response surface methodology based on four parameters, namely, particle size (Z-average), polydispersity index, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency. The transfersome formula was prepared using central composite design, and the selected independent variables were the total lipid (mixture of phospholipid and Tween 80) and luteolin concentrations. 14 formulas of luteolin-loaded transfersome were prepared by thin film hydration, followed by the sonication method.
Results: The total lipid and luteolin concentration significantly affected the entrapment efficiency only. The other parameters were not affected by a change in these variables. The optimum formula of 4.88% total lipid and 0.5% luteolin with desirability value of 0.609 conformed with the prediction parameters. Vesicle imaging using transmission electron microscopy revealed spherical particles and the occurrence of particle aggregation. The optimum formula of luteolin-loaded transfersome possessed the following characteristics: Particle size of 286.03±8.46 nm, polydispersity index of 0.480±0.013, zeta potential of -18.67±0.379 mV, and entrapment efficiency of 94.97±0.28 %. However, these values did not correspond to the predicted values and were confirmed by the low adjusted and predicted R-squared values.
Conclusion: This method can be applied to optimize the entrapment efficiency, and in the future, it can be used for further optimizing formula of transfersome by including more variables.


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Fig. 1: Plot contour showed the interaction of total lipid and luteolin concentration on (a) particle size (Z-average d.nm),

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How to Cite

Setyawati, D. R., Surini, S., & Mardliyati, E. (2017). OPTIMIZATION OF LUTEOLIN-LOADED TRANSFERSOME USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 9, 107–111. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2017.v9s1.64_71



Original Article(s)