• Anita Ayu Dwi Ajie Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia.
  • Retnosari Andrajati Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia.
  • Maksum Radji Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia.




Antibiotic resistance, Non-prescription, Community pharmacy, Cross-sectional


Objective: This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the sale of non-prescribed antibiotics in Jakarta, Indonesia.
Methods: A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted across 190 randomly selected pharmacies in five administrative districts of Jakarta,
Indonesia. Data regarding pharmacies were obtained from the Facility of Pharmaceutical Services Ministry of Health Data, in 2014, which includes all
pharmacies in Jakarta. Further data were obtained using structured questionnaires.
Results: Among the 190 respondents, 15 pharmacies (9.7%) never provided antibiotics without prescription, whereas 44 (23.6%), 60 (31.6%), and
71 pharmacies (36.3%) provided antibiotic services without prescription rarely, sometimes, and always, respectively. Factors considerably associated
with the increased sale of antibiotics without a prescription included the attitude and age of pharmacists, the type of pharmacy (independent or chain
store), and the presence of pharmacist assistants. Attitude was the most common variable related to providing antibiotics without a prescription.
Conclusion: Antibiotics are frequently dispensed by community pharmacies in Jakarta without an appropriate prescription. These findings support
the need for strict enforcement of pharmacy laws through improved inspections, and they highlight the need for evidence-based guidelines and
educational interventions to improve practices regarding antibiotic provision.


Download data is not yet available.


Priyanka R, Bhattacharyya S. A review on promising antibiotic therapy

by novel delivery systems. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:18-24.

World Health Organization. Antimicrobial Resistance. Available from:

http://www.who.int; http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs194/

en. [Last cited on 2016 Apr 30].

Azevedo MM, Pinheiro C, Yaphe J, Baltazar F. Portuguese students’

knowledge of antibiotics: A cross-sectional study of secondary school

and university students in Braga. BMC Public Health 2009;9:359.

Chandrakanth P, Saleem TS, Reddy MM, Gopinatch C, Rao MM.

Assesment of public knowledge and attitude regarding antibiotics use

in a tertiary care hospital. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9:118-22.

Grigoryan L, Monnet DL, Haaijer-Ruskamp FM, Bonten MJ,

Lundborg S, Verheij TJ, et al. Self-medication with antibiotics in

Europe: A case for action. Curr Drug Saf 2010;5:329-32.

Widayati A, Suryawati S, de Crespigny C, Hiller JE. Self-medication

with antibiotics in Yogyakarta city Indonesia: A cross sectional

population-based survey. BMC Res Notes 2011;4:491.

Pariwidjayanti AM. Analysis of the Effect of Antibiotics on the Banner

Visitors Knowledge About the Dangers of Antibiotics Swamedication

in Pharmacies in Depok City. Thesis. Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas

Indonesia; 2013.

Both L, Botgros R, Cavaleri M. Analysis of licensed over-the-counter

(OTC) antibiotics in the European Union and Norway, 2012. Euro

Surveill 2015;20:30002.

Roque F, Soares S, Breitenfeld L, Figueiras A, Herdeiro MT. Influence

of community pharmacists’ attitudes on antibiotic dispensing behavior:

A cross-sectional study in Portugal. Clin Ther 2015;37:168-77.

Roque F, Soares S, Breitenfeld L, Gonzalez-Gonzalez C, Figueiras A,

Herdeiro MT, et al. Portuguese community pharmacists’ attitudes to

and knowledge of antibiotic misuse: Questionnaire development and

reliability. PLoS One 2014;9:e90470.

Axelsson M. Report on personality and adherence to antibiotic therapy:

A population-based study. BMC Psychol 2013;1:24.

Sabry NA, Farid SF, Dawoud DM. Antibiotic dispensing in Egyptian

community pharmacies: An observational study. Res Social Adm

Pharm 2014;10:168-84.

Bahnassi A. A qualitative analysis of pharmacists’ attitudes and

practices the sale of antibiotics without prescription in Syria. J Taibah

Univ Med Sci 2015;10:227-33.

Bin Abdulhak AA, Altannir MA, Almansor MA, Almohaya MS,

Onazi AS, Marei MA, et al. Non prescribed sale of antibiotics in Riyadh,

Saudi Arabia: A cross sectional study. BMC Public Health 2011;11:538.

Abasaeed AE, Vlcek J, Abuelkhair MA, Andrajati R, Elnour AA.

A comparative study between prescribed and over-the-counter

antibiotics. Saudi Med J 2013;34:1048-54.

Astuti D, Andrajati R, Supardi S. Influence of pharmacist-doctor

communication on pediatric antibiotic prescription. Asian J Pharm Clin

Res 2017;10:46-9.

Ministry of Health. Basic Health Research. Jakarta: Agency for Health

Research and Development Ministry of Health.

Statistics Central Board. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik Jakarta; 2015.

Notoatmodjo S. Health Behavioral. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta; 2014.

Ministry of Health. Mapping Application for Pharmaceutical Facility.

Available from: http://www.apif.binfar.depkes.go.id. [Last cited on

Apr 01].

Indonesian Ministry of Health Regulation No. 347/Menkes/SK/VII/90

Concerning Mandatory Drug Pharmacy.

Indonesian Ministry of Health Regulation No. 924/Menkes/SK/VII/93

Concerning Mandatory Drug Pharmacy No. 2.

Indonesian Ministry of Health Regulation No.925/Menkes/SK/VII/90

Concerning Mandatory the Amendment Drug List No. 1.

Indonesian Ministry of Health Regulation No. 1176/Menkes/SK/X/1999

Concerning Mandatory Mandatory Drug List Pharmacy No. 3.

Nga do TT, Chuc NT, Hoa NP, Hoa NQ, Nguyen NT, Loan HT, et al.

Antibiotic sales in rural and urban pharmacies in Northern Vietnam: An

observational study. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 2014;15:6.

Llor C, Cots JM. The sale of antibiotics without prescription in

pharmacies in Catalonia, Spain. Clin Infect Dis 2009;48:1345-9.



How to Cite

Ajie, A. A. D., Andrajati, R., & Radji, M. (2018). FACTORS AFFECTING THE SALE OF NON-PRESCRIBED ANTIBIOTICS IN JAKARTA, INDONESIA: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 10(1), 243–247. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2018.v10s1.54



Original Article(s)

Most read articles by the same author(s)