POTENTIAL HOLISTIC PREVENTIVE AND THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF GARCINIA MANGOSTANA EXTRACT OR ISOLATES IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS: A REVIEW
Keywords:Garcinia mangostana, Mangosteen, Nil, Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Objective: The need for long-term medication in diabetes mellitus has led to a search for herbal medicines as alternative treatments. Several studies have shown that extract or isolates of Garcinia mangostana can help prevent and treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods: This review was conducted by searching various databases, including PubMed, ClinicalKey, ScienceDirect, and EBSCOhost. We analyzed papers published within the previous 10 y.
Results: All in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies that evaluated the pharmacological effects of extract or isolates of G. mangostana in T2DM were reviewed. G. mangostana was found to suppress adipogenesis and regulate lipid homeostasis, thus improving lipid profiles and preventing T2DM. G. mangostana also demonstrated hypoglycemic properties, including the ability to decrease fasting blood glucose and mildly increase pancreatic β-cell numbers and activity. The mangosteen-treated group in one study showed a decrease in Homeostatic Model Assesment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), indicating improved insulin sensitivity, along with a significant decrease in the high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) levels. Histopathology showed that the α-mangostin-treated group had less damage to pancreatic β cells, healthier hepatocytes and central veins, and less glomerular and tubular epithelial necrosis than the diabetic control group. Moreover, the antioxidant effect of G. mangostana was shown to protect against the micro-and macrovascular damage caused by T2DM.
Conclusion: Extract or isolates of G. mangostana possess strong potential to prevent and treat T2DM. Further research evaluating long-term outcome biomarkers in humans is needed to confirm the drug’s glycemic control capacity.
2. Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Jameson JL, Fauci AS, Longo DL, Loscalzo J. Harrison’s principles of internal medicine. 19th ed. New York: McGraw Hill; 2015. p. 2399–406.
3. Nathan DM, Buse JB, Davidson MB, Ferrannini E, Holman RR, Sherwin R, et al. Medical management of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a consensus algorithm for the initiation and adjustment of therapy: a consensus statement from the American diabetes association and the European association for the study of diabetes. Diabetologia 2009;52:17–30.
4. Chaudhury A, Duvoor C, Reddy Dendi VS, Kraleti S, Chada A, Ravilla R, et al. Clinical review of antidiabetic drugs: implications for type 2 diabetes mellitus management. Front Endocrinol 2017;8:1–7.
5. Wang Z, Wang J, Chan P. Treating type 2 diabetes mellitus with traditional Chinese and Indian medicinal herbs. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013;1–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/343594
6. Chang CLT, Lin Y, Bartolome AP, Chen YC, Chiu SC, Yang WC. Herbal therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus: chemistry, biology, and potential application of selected plants and compounds. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013;1–33. Doi:10.1155/2013/378657
7. Yang R, Li P, Li N, Zhang Q, Bai X, Wang L, et al. Xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana. Molecules 2017;22:683.
8. Ragasa C, Tabin T, Reyes J, Tan M, Shen C. Chemical constituents of Garcinia mangostana pulp and seeds. Int J Pharm Clin Res 2016;8:1166–9.
9. Gutierrez Orozco F, Failla M. Biological activities and bioavailability of mangosteen xanthones: a critical review of the current evidence. Nutrients 2013;5:3163–83.
10. Mohamed J, Nafizah N, Zariyantey AH, Budin SB. Mechanisms of diabetes-induced liver damage: the role of oxidative stress and inflammation. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J 2016;16:132–41.
11. Chawla A, Chawla R, Jaggi S. Microvascular and macrovascular complications in diabetes mellitus: distinct or continuum? Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2016;20:546–51.
12. Stirban A, Gawlowski T, Roden M. Vascular effects of advanced glycation endproducts: clinical effects and molecular mechanisms. Mol Metab 2013;3:94–108.
13. Chae HS, Kim YM, Bae JK, Sorchhann S, Yim S, Han L, et al. Mangosteen extract attenuates the metabolic disorders of high-fat-fed mice by activating AMPK. J Med Food 2016;19:148–54.
14. Quan X, Wang Y, Ma X, Liang Y, Tian W, Ma Q, et al. ?-Mangostin induces apoptosis and suppresses differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells via inhibiting fatty acid synthase. PLoS One 2012;7:e33376.
15. Asari H, Mahartini D. The effect of administering mangosteen rind extract (Garcinia mangostana L) compared with glimepride to the blood sugar levels of white male rate (Rattus norwegicus l) induced by streptozotocin. Folia Medica Indones 2016;52:241–5.
16. Taher M, Tg Zakaria TMFS, Susanti D, Zakaria ZA. Hypoglycaemic activity of ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana Linn. in normoglycaemic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. BMC Complement Altern Med 2016;16:135.
17. Kumar V, Bhatt PC, Kaithwas G, Rashid M, Al-abbasi FA, Khan JAJ, et al. ?-Mangostin mediated pharmacological modulation of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in diabetes induced Wistar rat. Beni Suef Univ J Basic Appl Sci 2016;5:255–76.
18. Ryu HW, Cho JK, Curtis Long MJ, Yuk HJ, Kim YS, Jung S, et al. ?-glucosidase inhibition and antihyperglycemic activity of prenylated xanthones from garcinia mangostana. Phytochemistry 2011;72:2148–54.
19. Udani JK, Singh BB, Barrett ML, Singh VJ. Evaluation of mangosteen juice blend on biomarkers of inflammation in obese subjects: a pilot, dose finding study. Nutr J 2009;8:1–7.
20. Lee D, Kim YM, Jung K, Chin YW, Kang K. Alpha-mangostin improves insulin secretion and protects INS-1 cells from streptozotocin-induced damage. Int J Mol Sci 2018;19:1484.
21. Bumrungpert A, Kalpravidh RW, Chitchumroonchokchai C, Chuang CC, West T, Kennedy A, et al. Xanthones from mangosteen prevent lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance in primary cultures of human adipocytes. J Nutr 2009;139:1185–91.
22. Watanabe M, Gangitano E, Francomano D, Addessi E, Toscano R, Costantini D, et al. Mangosteen extract shows a potent insulin sensitizing effect in obese female patients: a prospective randomized controlled pilot study. Nutrients 2018;10:586.
23. Husen SA, Winarni D, Khaleyla F, Kalqutny SH. Activity test of various mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp extract fractions to decrease fasting blood cholesterol levels and lipid peroxidation activity in diabetic mice. J Biol Res 2016;22:13–7.
24. Karim N, Jeenduang N, Tangpong J. Renoprotective effects of xanthone derivatives from garcinia mangostana against high fat diet and streptozotocin-induced type II diabetes in mice. Walailak J Sci Technol 2018;15:107–16.
25. Abdallah HM, El-Bassossy HM, Mohamed GA, El-Halawany AM, Alshali KZ, Banjar ZM. Mangostanaxanthones III and IV: advanced glycation end-product inhibitors from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana. J Nat Med 2017;71:216–26.
26. Abdallah H, El-Bassossy H, Mohamed G, El-Halawany A, Alshali K, Banjar Z. Phenolics from garcinia mangostana inhibit advanced glycation endproducts formation: effect on Amadori products, cross-linked structures and protein thiols. Molecules 2016;21:251.
27. Fatmawati S, Ersam T, Shimizu K. The inhibitory activity of aldose reductase in vitro by constituents of garcinia mangostana Linn. Phytomedicine 2014;22:49–51.
28. Li L, Han AR, Kinghorn A, Frye R, Derendorf H, Butterweck V. Pharmacokinetic properties of pure xanthones in comparison to a mangosteen fruit extract in rats. Planta Med 2013;79:646–53.