• N. VISHAL GUPTA Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Shivarathreeshwara Nagara, Bannimantap, Mysuru 570015, India
  • S. SHANMUGANATHAN Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Porur, Chennai 600116, India
  • SANDEEP KANNA Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Shivarathreeshwara Nagara, Bannimantap, Mysuru 570015, India
  • K. TRIDEVA SASTRI Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Shivarathreeshwara Nagara, Bannimantap, Mysuru 570015, India https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3564-4589




Thermoreversible gel, Gel network, Stability, Wound healing property, Epithelialization


Objective: To develop and formulate doxycycline hydrochloride hydrogels employing various polymers for wound healing application.

Methods: A thermo-reversible gel can transmute from a sol-gel in replication to environmental temperature vicissitudes made up of gallic acid (GA) and tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP). An antimicrobial agent (doxycycline hydrochloride) integrated to provide the benefit and efficiently safeguard the wound from infection. A low temperature causes TSP to aggregate intermolecularly with GA to create a gel network. GA–TSP gel heat stability increased with increased concentration of GA. Prepared gel formulations were optimized by 23 factorial designs further evaluated for stability and compatibility, appearance, gelation temperature, gravitational flow simulation, in vitro release, in vivo excision wound model in rats.

Results: A strong viscoelastic gel was formed at body temperature in the GA–TSP mixture containing 0.6% (w/v) GA. The prepared formulation exhibited absolute stability and compatibility. The formulations indicated a range of 23±1.47 to 50±1.40 °C. The viscosity values were in the range 6628 to 19146 cps. The optimized gel formulation (DT8) was prepared to analyze the checkpoints and further evaluated for gelation temperature ( °C), viscosity (cps), gelation time (s), and in vitro release of drugs (percent cumulative release of drugs) up to 12 h reflecting R1=36.5±0.61 °C, R2=12887±11 cps, R3=16.2±1.38 min and R4=94.65±0.59 percent. Formulation DT8 showed significant wound healing property and it is comparable to the control group. Formulation DT9 treated group showed faster epithelialization and greater rates of wound contraction in rats.

Conclusion: The formulations comprising of TSP with antimicrobial agents demonstrated to be efficient in wound healing. Out of all formulations, DT8 showed better wound healing ability, which is evident from in vivo studies.


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How to Cite

GUPTA, N. V., SHANMUGANATHAN, S., KANNA, S., & SASTRI, K. T. (2021). A 23 FACTORIAL DESIGN FOR FORMULATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF DOXYCYCLINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN SITU GEL FORMING SOLUTION FOR WOUND HEALING APPLICATION. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 13(3), 221–232. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2021v13i3.39696



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