• DEWA AYU AGUS SRI LAKSEMI Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Jalan PB Sudirman Denpasar, Bali 80234, Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5579-5531
  • I. KETUT TUNAS Health Information Management Studi Program, Bali International University Jl. Seroja, Gang Jeruk, Kelurahan Tonja Denpasar Utara, Bali 80239, Indonesia
  • PUTU EKA WIDYADHARMA Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Jalan PB Sudirman Denpasar, Bali 80234, Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4554-0348
  • WAYAN GDE ARTAWAN Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Jalan PB Sudirman Denpasar, Bali 80234, Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8173-9311
  • LUH PUTU RATNA SUNDARI Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University Jalan PB Sudirman Denpasar, Bali 80234, Indonesia




COVID-19, Ivermectin, Treatment, Meta-analysis


Objective of the review was to evaluate the effectiveness of Ivermectin as a treatment of COVID-19. The researchers collected and assessed articles and previous studies in the form of Randomized Clinical Trial (RCT) from PubMed, Google Scholar, Clinical Trials Gov and Preprint databases. The inclusion criteria of the study were the patients diagnosed with mild to moderate COVID-19 who had only been given Ivermectin compared to placebo or Standard of Cure (SoC) of COVID-19. There are 11 RCT which are resemble to the inclusion criteria of the study. Based on the 11 RCT that are suitable to the inclusion criteria of the study, the researchers found the pooled OP rate for viral load, Day to Negativity (DTN), and Escalation of Cure for all studies are 62% (95% CI, 0.50-0.74), 89% (95% CI, 0.40-1.38) and 43% (95% CI, 0.06-0.08) respectively. Moreover, the pooled OR rate for length of stay or hospitalization, mortality or deterioration, symptom reduction of all studies are 100.6% (95% CI, 0.54-1.58). Due to the lack of substantial data on information sources and low-to-moderate quality of studies which are included in systematic review, the evidence suggests that IVM (Ivermectin) administration does not decrease the mortality, symptom and viral load of COVID-19.


Download data is not yet available.


Michael, Ramatillah DL. Treatment profile and survival analysis acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) COVID-19 patients. Int J App Pharm. 2022;14(2):54-6. doi: 10.22159/ijap.2022.v14s2.44750.

Tunas IK, Sri Laksemi DAA, Widyadharma IPE, Sundari LPR. The efficacy of covid-19 vaccine and the challenge in implementing mass vaccination in Indonesia. Int J App Pharm. 2021;13(4):74-6. doi: 10.22159/ijap.2021v13i4.41270.

Sreedevi A, Retna A M, Robin Kumar Samuel. Molecular docking study of naturally occurring compounds as inhibitors of covid-19. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2022;15:69-71. doi: 10.22159/ajpcr.2022.v15i1.43121.

Kumari VBC, Patil SM, Shirahatti PS, Sujay Y, Tejaswini M, Ranganatha LV. The current status and perspectives for the emerging pandemic: Covid-19. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2020;12:1-10. doi: 10.22159/ijpps.2020v12i8.38206

Yavuz S, Simsek Yavuz S, Unal S. Antiviral treatment of COVID-19. Turk J Med Sci. 2020;50(SI-1):611-9. doi: 10.3906/sag-2004-145, PMID 32293834 (SI-1).

Laksemi DA, Sukrama DM, Sudarmaja M, Damayanti PA, Swastika K, Diarthini NLP, Astawa NM, Tunas K. Medicinal plants as recent complementary and alternative therapy for COVID-19: A review. Trop J Nat Prod Res 2020;4(12):1025-32. doi: 10.26538/tjnpr/v1i4.5.

Dawoud DM, Soliman KY. Cost-effectiveness of antiviral treatments for pandemics and outbreaks of respiratory illnesses, including COVID-19: A systematic review of published economic evaluations. Value Health. 2020;23(11):1409-22. doi: 10.1016/j.jval.2020.07.002. PMID 33127010.

Ahmed S, Karim MM, Ross AG, Hossain MS, Clemens JD, Sumiya MK. A five-day course of ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19 may reduce the duration of illness. Int J Infect Dis. 2021 Feb;103:214-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.11.191. PMID 33278625.

Garcia PJ, Mundaca H, Ugarte Gil C, Leon P, Malaga G, Chaccour C. Randomized clinical trial to compare the efficacy of ivermectin versus placebo to negativize nasopharyngeal PCR in patients with early COVID-19 in Peru (SAINT-Peru): a structured summary of a study protocol for randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2021 Apr 9;22(1):262. doi: 10.1186/s13063-021-05236-2, PMID 33836826.

Sharun K, Dhama K, Patel SK, Pathak M, Tiwari R, Singh BR. Ivermectin, a new candidate therapeutic against SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2020;19(1):23. doi: 10.1186/s12941-020-00368-w, PMID 32473642.

Barrows NJ, Campos RK, Powell ST, Prasanth KR, Schott Lerner G, Acosta RS, Gao J, Wu P, Menon R, Saade G, Salas IF, Rossi SL, Vasilakis N, Routh A, Bradrick SS, Blanco MAG. A screen of FDA-approved drugs for inhibitors of zika virus infection. Cell Host Microbe 2016;20(2):259–70. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2016.07.004.

Caly L, Druce JD, Catton MG, Jans DA, Wagstaff KM. The FDA-approved drug ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Antiviral Res. 2020;178:104787. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104787. PMID 32251768.

Babalola OE, Bode CO, Ajayi AA, Alakaloko FM, Akase IE, Otrofanowei E. Ivermectin shows clinical benefits in mild to moderate COVID19: a randomized controlled double-blind, dose-response study in Lagos. QJM. 2022;114(11):780-8. doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcab035, PMID 33599247.

Abd-Elsalam S, Noor RA, Badawi R, Khalaf M, Esmail ES, Soliman S. Clinical study evaluating the efficacy of ivermectin in COVID-19 treatment: a randomized controlled study. J Med Virol. 2021;93(10):5833-8. doi: 10.1002/jmv.27122, PMID 34076901.

Chaccour C, Casellas A, Blanco-Di Matteo A, Pineda I, Fernandez Montero A, Ruiz Castillo P. The effect of early treatment with ivermectin on viral load, symptoms and humoral response in patients with non-severe COVID-19: A pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. E Clinical Medicine. 2021;32:100720. doi: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100720. PMID 33495752.

Krolewiecki A, Lifschitz A, Moragas M, Travacio M, Valentini R, Alonso DF. Antiviral effect of high-dose ivermectin in adults with COVID-19: A proof-of-concept randomized trial. E Clinical Medicine. 2021 Jun 18;37:100959. doi: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.100959. PMID 34189446.

Lopez Medina E, Lopez P, Hurtado IC, Davalos DM, Ramirez O, Martinez E. Effect of ivermectin on time to resolution of symptoms among adults with mild COVID-19: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2021 Apr 13;325(14):1426-35. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.3071, PMID 33662102.

Shahbaznejad L, Davoudi A, Eslami G, Markowitz JS, Navaeifar MR, Hosseinzadeh F. Effects of ivermectin in patients with COVID-19: A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Clin Ther. 2021;43(6):1007-19. doi: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2021.04.007. PMID 34052007.

Kirti R, Roy R, Pattadar C, Raj R, Agarwal N, Biswas B. Ivermectin as a potential treatment for mild to moderate covid-19: A double blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. MedRxiv 21249310. Available from: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.01.05.21249310vl.full.pdf. [Last accessed on 31 Dec 2021]

Bukhari KHS, Asghar A, Perveen N, Hayat A, Mangat SA, Butt KR. Efficacy of COVID-19 patients with mild to moderate disease. MedRxiv 21250840. Available from: https: //www.doi:10.1101/2021.02.02.21250840v1.medrxiv.org/content. [Last accessed on 31 Dec 2021].

Samaha AA, Mouawia H, Fawaz M, Hassan H, Salami A, Bazzal Aa, Saab Hb, Al-Wakeel M, Al Saabi A, Chouman M, Al Moussawi M, Ayoub H, Raad A, Hajjeh O, Eid AH, Raad H. Effects of a single dose of ivermectin on viral and clinical outcomes in asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects: a pilot clinical trial in lebanon. Viruses 2021;13(6):1-11. doi: 10.3390/v13060989.

Chosidow O, Bernigaud C, Guillemot D, Giraudeau B, Lespine A, Changeux JP. Ivermectin as a potential treatment for COVID-19? PLOS Negl Trop Dis. 2021;15(6):e0009446. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0009446. PMID 34061842.

Biber A, Mandelboim M, Harmelin G, Lev D, Ram Li SA, Nemet I. Favorable outcome on viral load and culture viability using ivermectin in early treatment of nonhospitalized patients with mild covid-19–A double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. MedRxiv 21258081. Available from: https://www.doi: 10.1101/2021.05.31.21258081v1.medrxiv.org/content. [Last accessed on 16 Aug 2021].

Molento MB. Ivermectin against COVID-19: the unprecedented consequences in Latin America. One Health. 2021;13:100250. doi: 10.1016/j.onehlt.2021.100250. PMID 33880395.

Kaur H, Shekhar N, Sharma S, Sarma P, Prakash A, Medhi B. Ivermectin as a potential drug for treatment of covid-19: an in-sync review with clinical and computational attributes. Pharmacol Rep. 2021;73(3):736-49. doi: 10.1007/s43440-020-00195-y, PMID 33389725.

Kriston L. Dealing with clinical heterogeneity in meta-analysis. Assumptions, methods, interpretation. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2013;22(1):1-15. doi: 10.1002/mpr.1377, PMID 23494781.

Bryant A, Lawrie TA, Dowswell T, Fordham EJ, Mitchell S, Hill SR. Ivermectin for prevention and treatment of COVID-19 infection: A systematic review, meta-analysis, and trial sequential analysis to inform clinical guidelines. Am J Ther. 2021;28(4):e434-60. doi: 10.1097/MJT.0000000000001402, PMID 34145166.

Roman YM, Burela PA, Pasupuleti V, Piscoya A, Vidal JE, Hernandez AV. Ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Infect Dis. 2021:1-8. doi: 10.1101/2021.05.21.21257595v2.

Fletcher J. What is heterogeneity and is it important? BMJ. 2007;334(7584):94-6. doi: 10.1136/bmj.39057.406644.68, PMID 17218716.

Okumuş N, Demirtürk N, Çetinkaya RA, Guner R, Avcı İY, Orhan S. Evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of adding ivermectin to treatment in severe COVID-19 patients. BMC Infect Dis. 2021;21(1):411. doi: 10.1186/s12879-021-06104-9, PMID 33947344.

Popp M, Stegemann M, Metzendorf MI, Gould S, Kranke P, Meybohm P. Ivermectin for preventing and treating COVID-19. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021;7:CD015017. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD015017.pub2. PMID 34318930.



How to Cite

LAKSEMI, D. A. A. S., TUNAS, I. K., WIDYADHARMA, P. E., ARTAWAN, W. G., & SUNDARI, L. P. R. (2022). IVERMECTIN IN THE TREATMENT OF COVID-19 DISEASE: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 14(4), 18–25. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2022v14i4.44689



Review Article(s)

Most read articles by the same author(s)