• NAJMIATUL FITRIA Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Andalas, Indonesia
  • SUCI WULANSARI Undergraduate Program, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia
  • YELLY OKTAVIA SARI Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Andalas, Indonesia




Drug interactions, Geriatrics, Hypertension


Objective: Hypertension is a degenerative disease that increases with age. Elderly patients are at the highest risk due to organ function decreasing. Therefore, drug interactions are possible. This study determined the potential drug interactions, which aimed to assess the potential for drug interactions based on the mechanism and severity, and next, to determine the relationship between polypharmacy and drug interactions.

Methods: This research was conducted retrospectively using data from medical records of geriatric patients with hypertension at the outpatient polyclinic of RSI Ibnu Sina Padang for 2021. Purposive sampling was used in this study.

Results: A sample of 155 patients was included in the inclusion criteria. The data were checked using Stockleys Drug Interaction, Adverse Drug Interaction, and software on the Drug Interaction Checker (www. drugs. com), then analyzed descriptively using SPSS. The results showed that the number of potential drug-drug interactions was quite high at 63.2%. The most common mechanism pattern is pharmacodynamics (66.67%), with the highest severity of drug interactions being moderate (88%). The study showed a significant association between polypharmacy and drug interactions (p=0.000).

Conclusion: The active role of pharmacists is expected in monitoring drug use that can potentially cause drug interactions. This action can prevent unwanted events associated with concurrent drug use.


Download data is not yet available.


WHO. A global brief on hypertension: silent Killer, Global public health crisis; 2013.

Violan C, Foguet Boreu Q, Roso Llorach A, Rodriguez Blanco T, Pons Vigues M, Pujol Ribera E. Burden of multimorbidity, socioeconomic status and use of health services across stages of life in urban areas: A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2014;14(1):530. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-530, PMID 24885174.

Sheppard JP, Singh S, Fletcher K, McManus RJ, Mant J. Impact of age and sex on primary preventive treatment for cardiovascular disease in the West Midlands, UK: cross-sectional study. BMJ. 2012;345:e4535. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e4535.

Riskesdas. Laporan nasional Riskesdas 2018. Kementrian kesehatan republik indonesia; 2019.

Lloyd Sherlock P, Beard J, Minicuci N, Ebrahim S, Chatterji S. Hypertension among older adults in low-and middle-income countries: prevalence, awareness and control. Int J Epidemiol. 2014;43(1):116-28. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyt215. PMID 24505082.

Rambhade S, Chakarborty A, Shrivastava A, Patil UK, Rambhade A. A survey on polypharmacy and use of inappropriate medications. Toxicol Int. 2012;19(1):68-73. doi: 10.4103/0971-6580.94506, PMID 22736907.

Drug interactions checker. Cherner multum, inc, Denver, CO; 2015.

Bilen O, Wenger NK. Hypertension management in older adults. F1000 Research. 2020;9. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.20323.1, PMID 32850119.

Masnoon N, Shakib S, Kalisch Ellett L, Caughey GE. What is polypharmacy? A systematic review of definitions. BMC Geriatr. 2017;17(1):1-10.

Mousavi S, Ghanbari G. Potential drug-drug interactions among hospitalized patients in a developing country. Caspian J Intern Med. 2017;8(4):282-8. doi: 10.22088/cjim.8.4.282, PMID 29201319.

Chandrasekhar D, Joseph E, Ghaffoor FA, Thomas HM. Role of pharmacist-led home medication review in the community setting and the preparation of medication list. Clin Epidemiol Glob Heal. 2019;7(1):66-70. doi: 10.1016/j.cegh.2018.01.002.

Andy F. Discover statistics using SPSS-third edition. Rev Mex Biodivers. 2011;82:179-91.

Bolarinwa OA. Sample size estimation for health and social science researchers: the principles and considerations for different study designs. Niger Postgrad Med J. 2020;27(2):67-75. doi: 10.4103/npmj.npmj_19_20, PMID 32295935.

Korshøj M, Hannerz H, Frikke Schmidt R, Marott JL, Schnohr P, Clays E. Occupational lifting and risk of hypertension, stratified by use of anti-hypertensives and age–a cross-sectional and prospective cohort study. BMC Public Health. 2021 Apr;21(1):721. doi: 10.1186/s12889-021-10651-w, PMID 33853574.

Wenger NK, Arnold A, Bairey Merz CN, Cooper DeHoff RM, Ferdinand KC, Fleg JL. Hypertension across a woman’s life cycle. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018 Apr;71(16):1797-813. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2018.02.033, PMID 29673470.

Honigberg MC, Patel AP, Lahm T, Wood MJ, Ho JE, Kohli P. Association of premature menopause with incident pulmonary hypertension: A cohort study. PLOS ONE. 2021;16(3):e0247398. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0247398, PMID 33690615.

Amila A, Utami N, Marbun AS. Hubungan status gizi berdasarkan lingkar lengan atas (LiLA) dengan tekanan darah pada pasien hipertensi. J Hol Health. 2020;14(1):140-8. doi: 10.33024/hjk.v14i1.1851.

Pratiwi PP. Kajian interaksi obat terhadap outcomes Klinik pasien geriatri dengan penyakit hipertensi di rumah sakit pelabuhan Jakarta utara. UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta; 2018.

Desriani, Azamris, Ghaissani SS, Kinanti SR, Warisman MA, Fitria N. Design and characterization of a SYBR green I-based melting curve method for investigation of HER2I655V polymorphism in breast cancer. J Genet Eng Biotechnol. 2021 Jan;19(1):6. doi: 10.1186/s43141-020-00108-9, PMID 33428029.

Correa A, Rochlani Y, Khan MH, Aronow WS. Pharmacological management of hypertension in the elderly and frail populations. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2018 Aug;11(8):805-17. doi: 10.1080/17512433.2018.1500896, PMID 30004797.

Fadhilla SN, Permana D. The use of antihypertensive drugs in the treatment of essential hypertension at outpatient installations. Tarakan: Puskesmas Karang Rejo. Yars J Pharmacol. 2020;1(1):7–14.

Zelko E, Klemenc Ketis Z, Tusek Bunc K. Medication adherence in elderly with polypharmacy living at home: a systematic review of existing studies. Mater Sociomed. 2016;28(2):129-32. doi: 10.5455/msm.2016.28.129-132, PMID 27147920.

Fitria N, Diana FM, Sari YO. Correlation between fasting blood glucose and hemoglobin level in women of childbearing age. Advances in Health Sciences Research. doi: 10.2991/ahsr.k.211105.006.

Diaconu CC, Cozma MA, Dobrica EC, Gheorghe G, Jichitu A, Ionescu VA. Polypharmacy in the management of arterial hypertension-friend or foe? Medicina (Kaunas). 2021 Nov;57(12). doi: 10.3390/medicina57121288, PMID 34946233.

Preston CL. Stockley’s drug interactions: 2015 pocket companion. Great Britain: Pharmaceutical Press; 2015.

Karalliedde LD, Clarke SFJ, Ursula Gotel JK. Adverse drug interaction. Second. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2016.

Hendera RS, Antar I. Obat pada peresepan pasien rawat inap pediatrik rumah sakit X dengan menggunakan aplikasi medscape. J Curr Pharm Sci. 2018;1(2):75-80.

Fitria N, Sari YO, Putry AR, Putrizeti F, Sukma A. Future challenge on probiotics uses from fermented milk on the endocrine disorder in human. IOP Conf Ser.: Earth Environ Sci. 2021;888(1):012047. doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/888/1/012047.



How to Cite

FITRIA, N., WULANSARI, S., & SARI, Y. O. (2023). POTENTIAL INTERACTIONS ANALYSIS OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS USED IN GERIATRIC. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 15(1), 29–33. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2023.v15s1.47503



Original Article(s)