• AVIN AINUR FITRIANINGSIH Doctoral Program in Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, East Java-65145, Indonesia
  • DEWI SANTOSANINGSIH Department of Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, East Java-65145, Indonesia
  • SUSANTHY DJAJALAKSANA Department of Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang-65145, Indonesia
  • SETYAWATI SOEHARTO KARYONO Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, East Java-65145, Indonesia
  • ROIHATUL MUTI'AH Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, UIN Maulana Malik Ibrahim, Malang, East Java-65151, Indonesia
  • MARIA INGE LUSIDA Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, East Java-60131, Indonesia
  • SUMARNO RETO PRAWIRO Department of Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, East Java-65145, Indonesia



Saussurea lappa, SARS-CoV-2, Antiviral activity


Objective: The study aims to investigate the antiviral activity of S. lappa against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro.

Methods: The extracts are obtained by ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) with a 96% ethanol solvent. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) uses n-hexane: ethyl acetate and chloroform: methanol) as mobile phases. The staining outcome is subsequently examined using UV visualizers with a wavelength of 366 nm. To assess the antiviral activity of Vero E6 cells, extracts were employed at doses of 25, 50, 75, and 100 µg/ml, with remdesivir serving as the positive control. Supernatants were collected on days 1, 2, 3, and 6 for qRT-PCR testing with target genes E and ORF1ab. Time-addition experiments were conducted to determine how the extract works as antiviral. Protein expression was tested with Western blots with antibodies S and N SARS-CoV-2.

Results: TLC identifies terpenoid chemicals present in the ethanol extract of S. lappa. The ethanol extract of S. lappa exhibited antiviral effects against SARS-CoV-2, with an inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) of 40 µg/ml, a cytotoxic concentration 50 (CC50) of 131.4 µg/ml, and a selectivity index of 3.51. The extract can potentially impact the entry-post-entry phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Vero cells. The immunoblotting results demonstrated a reduction in the expression of S and N proteins in the treatment group compared to the negative control.

Conclusion: S. lappa ethanol extract has antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 based on an in vitro study.


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