• Chime Sa Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Industrial Pharmacy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001, Nigeria.
  • Ugwu Ce Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Industrial Pharmacy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001, Nigeria.
  • Ugwuoke Cec Department of Pharmacognosy and Environmental Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001, Nigeria.
  • Akuwara Bu Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Industrial Pharmacy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001, Nigeria.
  • Onunkwo Gc Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Industrial Pharmacy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001, Nigeria.


Objectives: The objectives of the study were to formulate herbospheres of V. amygdalina leaf-extract and to study the in vitro and antibacterial properties of the formulations

Vernonia amygdalina, Del (Asteraceae) is a tropical shrub used throughout West Africa for the management of diabetes and other metabolic diseases associated with the liver. The plant has acquired special relevance recently, having been proved in human medicine to possess potent antimalarial, antihelmintic, and antitumorigenic properties.

Methods: Herbospheres were formulated with lipid matrices consisting of goat fat (70%) and Phospholipon® 90H (30%) by melt homogenization and characterized for taste masking, particle size, pH, encapsulation efficiency, and loading capacity. Inhibition zone diameter of the herbospheres was studied.

Results: Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, carbohydrates, reducing sugars, protein, steroids, flavonoids, and cardiac glycosides in substantial quantities. Acid compounds and oils were, however, absent. The particle size of herbospheres ranged from 6.90±0.2 to 28.50±0.71 μm and was significantly affected by the type of surfactant used (p < 0.05). The pH ranged from 5.6 to 5.9 at day 1 and 4.1 to 4.4 at 30 days. Highest EE of 90–92 % was obtained and was significantly affected by surfactant used (p<0.05). Formulations exhibited significantly higher inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus than tetracycline pure sample used as the reference drug (p<0.05).

Conclusion: V. amygdalina herbospheres formulations had antibacterial properties in addition to taste masking and high encapsulation of the extract.

Author Biography

Chime Sa, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Industrial Pharmacy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001, Nigeria.




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How to Cite

Sa, C., Ce, U., Cec, U., Bu, A., & Gc, O. (2018). FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF NOVEL HERBOSPHERES DELIVERY SYSTEM OF LEAF EXTRACT OF VERNONIA AMYGDALINA DEL (ASTERACEAE). Innovare Journal of Ayurvedic Sciences, 6(1), 10–15. Retrieved from



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