• CHIME SA Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Industrial Pharmacy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001, Nigeria.
  • AKPA PA Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001, Nigeria.
  • ONYISHI IV Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Industrial Pharmacy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001, Nigeria.
  • EZENDUKA DE Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Industrial Pharmacy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001, Nigeria.


Herbal formulation, Drug delivery, Lantana camara, Inhibition zone diameter, Lipids, Phytosomes


Aim: The aim of the work was to formulate Lantana camara phytosomes to improve the antimicrobial properties.

Methods: L. camara phytosomes were prepared by solvent evaporation using soy lecithin (Phospholipon® 90H). The effect of surfactant Poloxamer 188 was carried out. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the phytoconstituents was analyzed. The encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity were studied. Furthermore, the in vitro release profile was studied in ethanolic buffer. The inhibition zone diameter (IZD) was evaluated against three bacterial and two fungi.

Results: The results showed that saponins were the most dominant phytochemical with about 7% on the plant leaves. The highest EE of 82.80% was obtained. In vitro release showed about 23% drug release at 60 min. The IZD results showed that L. camara had significantly higher activity against Escherichia coli and Listeria ivanovii than Staphylococcus aureus (p<0.05). The results also showed that for Candida albicans, L. camara phytosomes had significantly higher IZD than the extract (p<0.05). However, the L. camara extract and the formulations showed no activity against the Aspergillus flavus.

Conclusions: Phytosomes enhanced the antimicrobial properties of L. camara and could serve as a good delivery system for this herbal drug.


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