CARDIO PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF THE LEAVES OF ARTOCARPUS HETEROPHYLLUS L. ON DAPHNIA MAGNA
Objective: To prescreenÂ the in vivo cardioprotective activity of theÂ leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus.L Family MoraceaeÂ usingÂ the model organism Daphnia magna along with preliminary phytochemical study and acute toxicity assessment.
Method:Â To evaluate the Cardioprotective effect of the ethyl acetate extract of the leaves of A.heterophyllus (EAAH) in vivo on the lactose induced arrhythmic heart of the cladoceransÂ D.magna (Water flea) a novel model system for studying effects of agonists and toxins on cell signalling and ion channels in situ. Initially acute toxicity assessment, total phenolic content by UV spectral methods and ursolic acid content by HPTLC, trace elements by X-ray fluorescence were determined.
Results: Normal mean heart beat of the D.magna at 200Â±2Â°C was found to be 191.4Â±1.4 beats/min (n=50).Â Arrhythmia was induced by lactose (200mM) in the bathing medium.Â The ethyl acetate extract of the leaves of A.heterophyllus (20, 40, 60, 80Âµg/ml) prevented the lactose induced arrhythmia in dose dependent manner. Previous assessment of toxicity showed LC50 5.88mg/L. Preliminary phytochemical screening of appropriate solvent extract of the leaves showed the presence of flavonoids, sterols, carbohydrates, proteins, tannins , phenolic compounds and absence of alkaloids, volatile oils, fixed oils, glycosides like anthroquinone,Â cardiac, cyanogenetic and isothiocyanate. Total phenolic, ursolic acid content of EAAH was 376.5mg/g, 134mg/g respectively. High percentage of calcium, potassium was found in addition to traces of magnesium, sulphur, zinc, strontium, manganese, aluminium.Â
Conclusion: Artocarpus heterophyllus L. (Jack fruit) has long been recognized and economically is of appreciable importance as a source of edible aggregate fruit. This study indicates that the ethyl acetate extract of the leaves of A.heterophyllus possesses potential cardio protective activity on the lactose induced arrhythmiaÂ Â of the Daphnia heart without any toxicity and mortality. It is assumed that this may be due to polyphenolic content, ursolic acid, trace elements like calcium, potassium, magnesium.Â Further investigation requires confirming this activity.
Keywords: Artocarpus heterophyllus, Moraceae, Cardioprotective, Daphnia magna, UrsolicacidÂ
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