Indonesia’s Badminton National Referees: What is The Level of Self-Confidence and Concentration?


  • ERA PRATIWI Sport Science, Yogyakarta State University, Indonesia
  • SUHARJANA Sport Science, Yogyakarta State University, Indonesia
  • I PUTU AGUS DHARMA HITA Sport Science, Yogyakarta State University, Indonesia
  • HELEN PURNAMA SARI Sport Science, Yogyakarta State University, Indonesia
  • ELSA ARIESTIKA Sport Science, Yogyakarta State University, Indonesia



confidence, concentration, badminton national refere


Important national referees have psychological aspects, especially confidence and concentration when leading the match. This study aims to understand the confidence and concentration of badminton national referees in leading matches. This type of research is descriptive quantitative. The population of this research is all 140 Indonesian national badminton referees with national licenses A and B. The sample technique used in this research is using purposive sampling technique with the number of subjects used in this study are 26 national referees A and B. The instrument used is a self-confidence questionnaire. and referee concentration as many as 32 statements. The data analysis technique in this study used a validity test measured by the correlations product moment technique and a reliability test using the Cronbach's alpha technique. From the validity test, the value of sig 0.004 was obtained for the confidence questionnaire and sig 0.000 for the concentration questionnaire. The results of the reliability test obtained a value of 0.871 for the self-confidence questionnaire and a value of 0.975 for the concentration questionnaire. The results showed that the level of self-confidence was 1 person (4%) in very low category, 2 (8%) in moderate category, 4 (15%) in high category, and 19 (73%) in very high category. As for the concentration level, there are 7 (27%) very low categories, 4 (15%) low categories, 4 (15%) high categories, and 11 (42%) very high categories.


Download data is not yet available.


Afif, U. M., Rumini, & Nasuka. (2016). Hubungan Kecemasan, Percaya Diri dan Motivasi Terhadap Kinerja Wasit Bola Voli [The relationship of anxiety, confidence and motivation to the performance of volleyball referees]. Journal of Physical Education and Sports, 5(2), 75–82.

• Amir, N. (2015). Instrument Development of Self-Confidence for Badminton Athletes. 30(2), 101–110.

• Anshel, M. H., Sutarso, T., Ekmekci, R., & Saraswati, I. W. (2014). A model linking sources of stress to approach and avoidance coping styles of Turkish basketball referees. Journal of Sports Sciences, 32(2), 116–128.

• Bloch, H. P. (2017). Training Strategies for Success. Petrochemical Machinery Insights, (May), 611–656.

• Bolla, I. N., Ropei, O., & Pratama, A. (2018). Pengaruh Hipnoterapi Terhadap Konsentrasi pada Atlet Bulutangkis di Unit Kegiatan Mahasiswa Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia[The Effect of Concentration Hypnotherapy on Badminton Athletes in the Student Activity Unit of the University of Indonesia Education]. Proceedings of the National Research & Community Service Scientific Meeting (PINLITAMAS 1), 1(1), 21–30.

• Derakshan, N., & Eysenck, M. W. (2010). Introduction to the special issue : Emotional states , attention , and working memory. 24(2), 189–200.

• Eysenck, M. W., Calvo, M. G., & Calvo, M. G. (2017). Anxiety and Performance : The Processing Efficiency Theory Anxiety and Performance : The Processing Efficiency Theory. 9931(October).

• Fajriyah, I., Sejarah, J. P., Sosial, F. I., Sejarah, J. P., & Sosial, F. I. (2013). Susi Susanti Atlet Bulutangkis Putri Indonesia Tahun 1988-1998 [Susi Susanti, Indonesian Women's Badminton Athlete, 1988-1998]. 1(2).

• Fortin-Guichard, D., Boudreault, V., Gagnon, S., & Trottier, C. (2018). Experience, Effectiveness, and Perceptions Toward Sport Psychology Consultants: A Critical Review of Peer-Reviewed Articles. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 30(1), 3–22.

• Gröpel, P., & Mesagno, C. (2019). Choking interventions in sports: A systematic review. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 12(1), 176–201.

• Guillén, F., & Feltz, D. L. (2011). A conceptual model of referee efficacy. Frontiers in Psychology, 2(FEB), 1–5.

• Hays, K., Thomas, O., Maynard, I., & Bawden, M. (2009). The role of confidence in world-class sport performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(11), 1185–1199.

• Hill, D. M., & Fleming, S. (2010). of Choking in Elite Golf. 221–240.

• Hings, R. F., Wagstaff, C. R. D., Anderson, V., Gilmore, S., & Thelwell, R. C. (2020). Better Preparing Sports Psychologists for the Demands of Applied Practice: The Emotional Labor Training Gap. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 32(4), 335–356.

• Hoseini, S. H., Aslankhani, M. A., Abdoli, B., & Mohammadi, F. (2011). The relationship between the number of crowds with anxiety and the function of the soccer premier league’s referees. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30(2010), 2374–2378.

• Hutabarat, A. L., Watimena, F. Y., & Fitranto, N. (2017). Hubungan Konsentrasi dan Persepsi Kinestetik Terhadap Kemampuan Shooting Pada Pemain U-11 Tahun Ragunan Soccer School [The Relationship between Concentration and Kinesthetic Perception on Shooting Ability in Ragunan Soccer School U-11 Players]. Jurnal Ilmiah Sport Coaching and Education, 1(2), 78–92.

• Ii, P., & Equipment, C. (2010). Laws of Badminton. (June), 1–10.

• Kamuk, Y. U. (2020). Self-Handicapping and Self-Esteem Levels of Taekwondo Referees. (50), 134–141.

• Kuswoyo, D. D., Pramono, H., & Rc, A. R. (2017). Kontribusi Percaya Diri , Konsentrasi dan Motivasi terhadap Kinerja Wasit Persatuan Sepak Bola Seluruh Indonesia Provinsi Sumatera Selatan. [Contribution of Confidence, Concentration and Motivation to the Performance of the Referees of the All-Indonesian Football Association, South Sumatra Province]. Journal of Physical Education and Sports. 6(3), 241–247.

• Liu, X. (2017). Sports Psychological Measurement And Statistical Method from the Perspective of Sports Public Service. 3rd International Conference on Economics, Social Science, Arts, Education and Management Engineering (ESSAEME 2017) Sports, 119(Essaeme), 2203–2205.

• McCarthy, P. J., Allen, M. S., & Jones, M. V. (2013). Emotions, cognitive interference, and concentration disruption in youth sport. Journal of Sports Sciences, 31(5), 505–515.

• Melo, X. (2015). and peripheral arterial stiffness indices and Note : This article appears here in its accepted , peer-reviewed form , as it was provided by the submitting author . It has not been copy edited , proofed , or formatted by the publisher. (February 2016).

• Mongeon, K., & Longley, N. (2013). A methodology for identifying the impacted groups in referee discrimination studies. Applied Economics Letters, 20(5), 416–419.

• Neil, R., Wilson, K., Mellalieu, S. D., Hanton, S., & Taylor, J. (2012). Competitive anxiety intensity and interpretation: A two-study investigation into their relationship with performance. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10(2), 96–111.

• Purnama, S. K. (2013). latihan Imagery [Imagery Exercise]. Jurnal IPTEK Olahraga Juara, 1(1), 34–47.

• Purnomo, A., & Hariono, A. (2020). Kepercayaan diri pada kemampuan smash tiga meter pada bolavoli Self-confidence due to ability of Three Meter Smash in Volleyball Volleyball is a sport that is played by twelve people on the field , the twelve people are divided into two teams , so each te. 6(2), 541–549.

• Qazoqov, S. R. (2020). Teaching Badminton Techniques and Organizing the Process in Physical Education Classes. Central Asian Problems of Modern Science and Education, 2020(2). Retrieved from

• Rosyadi, H., Mulyana, & Mulyana, D. (2017). Hubungan Tingkat Kebugaran Jasmani Dengan Rasa Percaya Diri Wasit Bola Basket[Relationship between Physical Fitness Level and Basketball Referee Confidence]. Jurnal Kepelatihan Olahraga, 10(2), 57–73.

• Rune Giske, Bjørn Tore Johansen, & Tommy Haugen. (2016). Training, mental preparation and unmediated practice among soccer referees: An analysis of elite and sub-elite referees’ reported practice. IJASS(International Journal of Applied Sports Sciences), 28(1), 31–41.

• Samuel, R. D. (2015). A Psychological Preparation Framework for Elite Soccer Referees: A Practitioner’s Perspective. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 6(3), 170–187.

• Samuel, R. D., Englert, C., Zhang, Q., & Basevitch, I. (2018). Hi ref, are you in control? Self-control, ego-depletion, and performance in soccer referees. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 38(June), 167–175.

• Santoso, S. (2015). SPSS20 Pengolahan Data Statistik di Era Informasi [SPSS20 Statistical Data Processing in the Information Age]. Jakarta: PT. Alex Media Komputindo, Kelompok Gramedia.

• Schnyder, U., & Hossner, E.-J. (2016). Psychological issues in football officiating: An interview study with top-level referees. Current Issues in Sport Science (CISS), 1, 1–14.

• Subarkah, A., Marani, I. N., & Akbar, R. F. (2020). The Analysis of Badminton Referee Performance. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 21(Icsshpe 2019), 136–139.

• Sudijono, A. (2018). Pengantar Statistik Pendidikan[Introduction to Education Statistics] Jakarta: Rajawali Pers.

• Surujlal, J., & Nguyen, S. (2011). Coping under pressure: Strategies for maintaining confidence amongst South African soccer coaches. Health SA Gesondheid, 16(1).

• Taylor, P., Allen, M. S., Jones, M., Mccarthy, P. J., & Sheehan-mansfield, S. (n.d.). European Journal of Sport Science Emotions correlate with perceived mental effort and concentration disruption in adult sport performers. (March 2013), 37–41.

• Williams, S. E., & Cumming, J. (2016). Athlete imagery ability: A predictor of confidence and anxiety intensity and direction. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 14(3), 268–280.

• Yuliana, E., & Kushartanti, W. (2020). Fungsional Lutut dan Kesiapan Psikologis Pasca Cedera ACL Penanganan Operatif dan Non-operatif [Knee Functional and Psychological Readiness Post ACL Injury Operative and Non-operative Management].Jurnal SPORTIF: Jurnal Penelitian Pembelajaran, 6(3), 561–574.



How to Cite

PRATIWI, E., SUHARJANA, DHARMA HITA, I. P. A., SARI, H. P., & ARIESTIKA, E. (2022). Indonesia’s Badminton National Referees: What is The Level of Self-Confidence and Concentration?. Innovare Journal of Education, 10(1), 7–12.



Research Article(s)