Examining Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions in Iranian and Chinese Context: A Mixed Methods Approach





China, Hofstede cultural dimensions, Iran, undergraduate business English students


This study investigated key cultural value dimensions in samples of undergraduate business students from Iran (n = 40) and China (n = 40). Hofstede’s national culture framework spans Power Distance, Individualism/Collectivism, Uncertainty Avoidance, and Masculinity/Femininity. A survey measured and compared cultural dimension scores between countries. Classroom observations also qualitatively assessed how societal norms shape teaching and learning. Results showed that Iranians accepted greater power inequality, showed more discomfort with unstructured situations, and were more individualist than the strongly collectivist Chinese sample. Both countries were distinctly masculine. Observation data reflected high Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance in Iranian classrooms, with professors tightly controlling discourse and censoring student opinions. Chinese classrooms demonstrated more collaboration and student debate. Findings update Hofstede’s country rankings with generational data. Insights can inform educational reforms catering teaching practices to cultural orientations while developing needed competencies. Limitations include sample size and generalizability.

Further cross-cultural research should track evolving youth attitudes, translate macro-culture into micro-domains like academia, and leverage understanding to optimize learning systems. This mixed methodology comparing Iranian and Chinese university students on cultural dimensions and academic manifestations makes a novel contribution. Practical implications span cross-cultural understanding, organizational leadership, policy, and culture-specific social initiatives.


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How to Cite

Moradi, E. (2024). Examining Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions in Iranian and Chinese Context: A Mixed Methods Approach. Innovare Journal of Education, 12(2), 6–14. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijoe.2024v12i2.50259



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