ESSENTIAL OIL CONTENT AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF EIGHT DILL (ANETHUM GRAVEOLENS L.) CULTIVARS CULTIVATED UNDER EGYPTIAN CONDITIONS
Keywords:dill, cultivars, essential oil, chemotype, carvone, limonene, dillapiole, piperitone
Objective: The objective of this research was to evaluate the essential oil content and composition of the eight dill cultivars under Egypt conditions.
Methods: A two years field experiment was conducted on eight dill cultivars in 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 seasons. The volatile oil content of the eight dill cultivars was studied at fruiting stage. Extracted volatile oil by water distillation was analyzed with GC-MS.
Results: Essential oil % of the eight dill cultivars under study was varied from 1.93-3.26%. Anethum graveolens cv. Common was the highest in essential oil followed by cv. Local, cv. Compatto, cv. Bouquet, cv. Elephant cv. Vierling, cv. Tetra and then cv. Dukat which gave the lowest in essential oil content. From the results of GC/MS obtained for the eight seeds dill cultivars, two chemotypes were found. The seven European cultivars that belong to type 1 contained limonene (9.60â€“18.0%), carvone (81.35â€“89.98%), whereas the Local cultivar belongs to type 2 (cv. Local) contains limonene (18.81%), carvone (56.61%), dillapiole (15.71%) and piperitone (7.41%). No dillapiole and piperitone were found in the essential oil of the first type cultivars (European cultivars).
Conclusion: The results obtained in this research work clearly indicated superiority of European cultivar (Common) to all cultivars on volatile oil content. Also all European cultivars were best in the volatile oil quality. European cultivars contain the highest percentage of carvone and were free from dillapiol and piperitone.
Keywords: Dill, Cultivar (cv.), Essential oil, Chemotype, Carvone, Limonene, Dillapiole, Piperitone
Santos PAG, Figueiredo AC, LourenÃ§o PML, Barroso JG, Pedro LG, Oliveira MM, et al. Hairy root cultures of Anethum graveolens (dill): establishment, growth, time-course study of their essential oil and its comparison with parent plant oils. J Biotechnol Lett 2002;24:1031-6.
Mahran GH, Kadry HA, Thabet CK, El-Olemy MM, Al-Azizi MM, Schiff PL. GC/MS analysis of volatile oil of fruits of Anethum graveolens. Pharm Biol 1992;30:139-44.
Peirce A. The American pharmaceutical association practical guide to natural medicines. Stonesong Press: New York; 1999.
Weiss E. Spice Crops. CABI Publishing, 10E 40th street, Suite 3203, New York, NY 10016 U.S.A; 2002.
Bailer J, Aichinger T, Hackl G, de Hueber K, Dachler M. Essential oil content and composition in commercially available dill cultivars in comparison to caraway. Ind Crops Prod 2001;14:229-39.
Kruger H, Hammer K. A new chemotype of Anethum graveolens L. J Essent Oil Res 1996;8:205-6.
Badoca A, Lamartib A. A Chemotaxonomic evaluation of Anethum graveolens L. (dill) of various origins. J Essent Oil Res 1991;3:269-78.
Bowes KM, Zheljazkov KVD, Cadwell CD, Pinckock JA, Roberts JC. Influence of seeding date and harvest stage on yields and essential oil composition of three cultivars of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) grown in Nova Scotia. Can J Plant Sci 2004;84:1155-60.
Said-Al Ahl HAH. Physiological studies on growth, yield and volatile oil of dill (Anethum graveolens). Ph. D. Thesis, Fac. Agric., Cairo Univ., Cairo, Egypt; 2005.
Guenther E. The essential oils. Vol. III. D Van Nostrand Co. Inc., New York; 1949. p. 640-76.
Wall DA, Friesen GH. The effect of herbicides and weeds on the yields and composition of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) oil. Crop Prot 1986;5:137-42.
Frank JR, Baron JJ, Guest RT. Pesticides for use in herbs, spices, and medicinal plants. Herb Spice Med Plant Dig 1987;5:1-12.
Kothari SK, Singh JP, Singh K. Chemical weed control in Bulgarian coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). Trop Pest Manage 1989;35:2-5.
Zheljazkov V, Zhalnov I. Effect of herbicides on yields and quality of Coriandrum sativum L. J Essent Oil Res 1995;7:633-9.
Rangappa M, Bhardwaj HL, Showhda M, Hamama AA. Cilantro response to nitrogen fertilizer rates. Herbs Spices Med Plants 1997;5:63-8.
Gil A, De La Fuente EB, Lenardis AE, Pereira ML, Suarez SA, Arnaldo B, et al. Coriander essential oil composition from two genotypes grown in different environmental conditions. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:2870-7.
Faber B, Bangert K, Mosandl A. GC-IRMS and enantioselective analysis in biochemical studies in dill (Anethum graveolens L.). Flavour Fragrance J 1998;12:305-14.
Yili A, Yimamu H, Maksimov VV, Aisa HA, Veshkurova ON, Salikhov ShI. The chemical composition of essential oil from seeds of Anethum graveolens cultivated in China. Chem Nat Compd 2006;42:491-2.
Delaquis PJ, Stanich K, Girard B, Mazza G. Antimicrobial activity of individual and mixed fractions of dill, cilantro, coriander and eucalyptus essential oil. Int J Food Microbiol 2002;74:101-9.
Jirovetz L, Buchbauer G, Stoyanova AS, Georgiev EV, Damianova ST. Composition, quality control and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of a long time stored dill (Anethum graveolens L.) seeds from Bulgaria. J Agric Food Chem 2003;18:3854-7.
Kapoor R, Giri B, Mukerji KG. Glomus macrocarpum: a potential bioinoculant to improve essential oil quality and concentration in dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and carum (Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) Sprague). World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2002;18:459-63.
Babri RA, Khokhar I, Mahmood Z, Mahmud S. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Anethum graveolens L. Sci Int (Lahore) 2012;24:453-5.
Singh G, Maurya S, Lampasona MPD, Catlan C. Chemical constituents, antimicrobial investigations, and antioxidative potentials of Anethum graveolens L. Essential oil and acetone extract: Part 52. J Food Sci 2005;70:M208-M215.
Jackson ML. Soil Chemical Analysis Prentice-Hall of India; 1973.
British Pharmacopoeia, British Approved Names. A Dictionary of Drug Names for Regulatory Use in the UK. Stationary Office Press: London, UK; 2002.
Radulescu V, Popescu ML, Ilies D. Chemical composition of the volatile oil from different plant parts of Anethum graveolens L. (Umbelliferae) cultivated in Romania. Farmacia 2010;58:594-600.
Jana S, Shekhawat GS. Anethum graveolens: an Indian traditional medicinal herb and spice. Pharmacogn Rev 2010;4:179-84.
Sandermann W, Bruns K. Biogenese von carvon in Anethum graveolens L. Planta Med 1965;13:364-8.
Bouwmeester HJ, Kuijpers AM. Relationship between assimilate supply and essential oil accumulation in annual and biennial caraway (Carum carvi L.). J Essent Oil Res 1993;5:143-52.
Bouwmeester HJ, Davies JAR, Smid HG, Welten RSA. Physiological limitations to carvone yield in caraway (Carum carvi L.). Ind Crops Prod 1995;4:39-51.
Von Schantz M, Huhtikangas A. Ãœber die Bildung von limonene und carvon in KÃ¼mmel. Carum carvi. Phytochemistry 1971;10:1787-93