• Entsar A. Saad Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, Damietta, Egypt
  • Salem A. Habib Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia
  • Wael A. Refai Internal Medicine Department, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
  • Amira A. Elfayoumy Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, Damietta, Egypt



Free radicals, Lipid peroxidation, Oxidative stress, Inflammation, Pre-diabetes, Metformin


Objective: Great interest is directed to inflammation and oxidative stress involvement in type 2 diabetes pathogenesis. Many researchers suggest they play roles but exactly how is still not clear enough. This encouraged us to investigate relations and potential inter-relationships between them and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes in its early stage. Whether metformin drug alone, as frequently prescribed, is enough for type 2 diabetes management in this early stage was an objective.Methods: Blood sugar indices, adiponectin (ADIPOQ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), C-reactive protein (CRP), liver and kidney function tests and lipid profile were monitored in non-diabetic volunteers, pre-diabetic and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients before and after metformin drug utilization for 5 mo.Results: MDA, inflammation markers and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were elevated, and blood sugar indices and lipid profile showed pathological alterations in diabetics compared to non-diabetics; changes were worse in type 2 cases. They were improved to different degrees by metformin treatment except for pancreatic β-cells function and ADIPOQ level showed no significant improvements and it couldn't normalize ALT.Conclusion: Results reflected significant relations and inter-relationships between oxidative stress and inflammation markers in type 2 diabetes in its early stage and indicated that metformin may need to be combined with another drug. 


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How to Cite

Saad, E. A., S. A. Habib, W. A. Refai, and A. A. Elfayoumy. “MALONDIALDEHYDE, ADIPONECTIN, NITRIC OXIDE, C-REACTIVE PROTEIN, TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA AND INSULIN RESISTANCE RELATIONSHIPS AND INTER-RELATIONSHIPS IN TYPE 2 DIABETES EARLY STAGE IS METFORMIN ALONE ADEQUATE IN THIS STAGE”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 9, no. 10, Oct. 2017, pp. 176-81, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2017v9i10.21149.



Original Article(s)