• Entsar A. Saad Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, Damietta, Egypt.
  • El-shahat A. Toson Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, Damietta, Egypt.
  • Galal M. Ahmed Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, Damietta, Egypt.


Khat, Medicinal herbs, Hepatotoxic, Hepatoprotective


Objective: Khat consumption has become a common problem that affects the health aspects of life in Yemen and other parts in the world. The liver has been suspected to be particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of khat use and until now khat hepatotoxicity effects are still controversial. This study was conducted to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extracts of clove and green tea, as medicinal herbs with established antioxidant properties, against controversial hepatotoxicity effects of khat in rats.

Methods: Rats received a daily oral dose of khat extract alone or in combination with green tea or clove extract for six weeks. To study the effects on liver cells, histopathology, routine liver function tests, malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes were investigated.

Results: Khat administration showed marked liver injury; congestion in the portal vein with fibrous tissue proliferation, extended from the portal area and forming intralobular Porto-portal bridging fibrous septae. Besides significant routine liver function tests alterations, lipid peroxides elevation, and TAC reduction with significant inhibition of SOD and CAT activities.

Conclusion: Combined administration of khat with clove or green tea protected hepatocytes via oxidative stress inhibition. They significantly counteracted the alterations in liver function tests, decreased lipid peroxidation and restored the antioxidant status to near normal levels. These results confirm khat hepatotoxicity and suggest that clove or green tea administration has strong hepatoprotective effects against khat induced hepatotoxicity in rats via antioxidant mediated mechanism.



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How to Cite

Saad, E. A., E.- shahat A. Toson, and G. M. Ahmed. “CLOVE OR GREEN TEA ADMINISTRATION ANTAGONIZES KHAT HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 7, no. 6, June 2015, pp. 72-76,



Original Article(s)