• Chandan Das The pharmaceutical College, Barpali, Bargarh, Odisha 768029
  • Priyanka Debta The pharmaceutical College, Barpali, Bargarh
  • Debajyoti Das Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University
  • Goutam Ghosh Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University


Sida rhombifolia, Microscopic study, Physico-chemical investigations, Fluorescence analysis


Objective: To investigate the cytomorphological and physico-chemical characteristics of Sida rhombifolia.

Methods: Fresh leaves, stems and roots were studied for microscopical characters and dried powder of leaves, stems and roots were subjected to physico-chemical analysis using standard methods.

Results: The detail microscopy of leaf revealed the presence of paracytic stomata, unicellular covering trichome, cluster of calcium oxalate crystals, lignified xylem, non-lignified phloem; presence of both simple and compound starch granules, pitted, spiral and annular xylem vessels were found in stem; and section of root found to contain cortex of polygonal and rectangular cells with brownish content, both lignified and nonlignified fibres, xylem vessels of spiral, annular thickening, and squarish type of crystals. Leaf constants such as stomatal number, stomatal index, and vein-islet number along with the dimension of starch grains were measured. Physico-chemical parameters such as ash values, extractive values, loss on drying, fluorescence analysis, behavior of powder drug with different chemical reagents, etc. were also determined. Preliminary photochemical screening of plant parts showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenolics, tannins, saponins, steroids and amino acids.

Conclusion: The microscopic study and physico-chemical analysis of Sida rhombifolia (S. rhombifolia) are useful in standardization for detrmination of quality, checking of purity and identification of the sample.



Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Chandan Das, The pharmaceutical College, Barpali, Bargarh, Odisha 768029

Dept. of Pharmacognosy, Assistant professor


Sharma V, Mehta SC, Sinoriya P. Pharmacognostical study of the whole plant of Sida rhombifolia. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2013;2:1-4.

Sreedhar S, Kumar UP, Girija TP, Remashree AB. Pharmacognostic standardisation of Combretum albidum G. Don leaf; a medicinally important liana. Pharmacogn J 2013;5:247-55.

Singh R, Ali A, Jeyabalan G, Kakar S, Semwal A. Development of quality control parameters for the standardization of fruit of Ficus racemosa Linn. (M). J A D 2013;2:207-13.

Ghosh G, Das D. An overview on therapeutic potential and phytochemistry of Sida rhombifolia Linn. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2015;32:209-16.

Bhandary MJ, Chandrashekhar KR, Kaveriappa KM. Medical ethnobotany of the Siddis of Uttara Kannada district, Karnataka, India. J Ethnopharmacol 1995;47:149-58.

Deka L, Majumdar R, Dutta AM. Some Ayurvedic important plants from district Kamrup (Assam). Ancient Sci Life 1983;3:108-15.

Shrestha I, Joshi N. Medicinal plants of the Lele village of Lalitpur district, Nepal. Int J Pharmacogn 1993;31:130-4.

Kumar DS, Prabhakar YS. On the ethnomedical significance of the Arjun tree,Terminalia arjuna (Roxb) Wight and Arnot. J Ethnopharmacol 1987;20:173-90.

Aminuddin, Girach RD, Khan AS. Treatment of malaria through herbal drugs from Orissa, India. Fitoterapia 1994;64:545-8.

Nandakarni KM. Indian Meteria Medica, Bombay popular prakashan; 1976. p. 1138.

Kirtikar KR, Basu BA. Indian Medicinal Plants. 2nd ed. Periodical Experts Book Publication, New Delhi; 1996. p. 856-60.

Muanza DN, Kim BW, Euler KL, Williams L. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of nine medicinal plants from Zaire. Int J Pharmacogn 1984;32:337-45.

Rastogi RP, Mehrotra BN, Editors. Compendium of indian medicinal plants (1970-1979). Central Drug Research Institute Lucknow: CSIR, New Delhi; 1991.

Sass JE. Elements of Botanical Microtechnique. Mc Graw Hill Book Co, New York; 1940.

Johansen DA. Plant Microtechnique. Mc Graw Hill Book Co, New York; 1940.

Khandelwal KR. Practical Pharmacognosy Techniques and Experiments. 12thed. Nirali Prakashan, Pune; 2004.

Esau K. Plant Anatomy. John Wiley and Sons, New York; 1965. p. 767.

Anonymous. Quality control methods for medicinal plants materials. WHO Geneva; 1998,

Rayner RW. A Mycological Colour Chart. Common Wealth Mycological Institute. Kew, Surrey and British Mycological Society. England; 1970.

Pratt RJ, Chase CR. Fluorescence of powder vegetable drugs with particular reference to development of identification. J Am Pharm Assoc 1949;38:324-33.

Kokate CK. Practical Pharmacognosy. 1sted. Vallabh Prakashan, New Delhi; 1994. p. 107.

Kumar S, Kumar V, Prakash O. Microscopic evaluation and physiochemical analysis of Dillenia indica leaf. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2011;1:337-40.

Periyanayagam K, Gopalakrishnan S, Karthikeyan V. Pharmacognostical, phytochemical studies on the leaves of psidium guajava linn. Anakapalli varieity. Innovare J Health Sci 2013;1:10-3.

Chanda S. Importance of pharmacognostic study of medicinal plants: an overview. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2014;2:69-73.



How to Cite

Das, C., P. Debta, D. Das, and G. Ghosh. “CYTOMORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL STUDIES OF SIDA RHOMBIFOLIA”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 7, no. 11, Oct. 2015, pp. 46-56,



Original Article(s)