• Elin Yulinah Sukandar School of Pharmacy, Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Research Group, Bandung Institute of Technology, Ganesha 10, Bandung, Indonesia
  • Neng Fisheri Kurniati Bandung Institute of Technology
  • Kusnandar Anggadiredja Bandung Institute of Technology
  • Annisa Kamil Bandung Institute of Technology


Antibacterial activity, Nil, MSSA, MRSA


Objective: The aim of this study was to find an alternative treatment of MRSA infection. We evaluated the interaction of in vitro antibacterial activity of Kaempferia pandurata Roxb. (rhizome) or Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. (rhizome) ethanolic extracts combined with commonly used antibiotics, namely penicillin V, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin HCl, and tetracycline HCl.

Methods: Interaction between the plant extracts and antibiotics against Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were tested by checkerboard method and interpreted as Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) index.

Results: Kaempferia pandurata showed a synergistic effect on all antibiotics tested against MSSA. Against MRSA, however, only combinations of Kaempferia pandurata and penicillin V or ampicillin which showed synergism, while others were antagonisms. Meanwhile, with Curcuma xanthorrhiza, only its combination with ampicillin which resulted in synergistic effect against both MSSA and MRSA, others resulted in various interaction responses against MSSA and MRSA.

Conclusion: Interaction between Kaempferia pandurata and penicillin V or ampicillin and that between Curcuma xanthorrhiza and ampicillin resulted in synergistic effect against MRSA. These combinations are promising to be developed as an alternative strategy to treat MRSA.



Download data is not yet available.


Chambers HF. The changing epidemiology of staphylococcus aureus? Emerging Infect Dis 2001;7:178-82.

Michel M, Gutmann L. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci: therapeutic realities and possibilities. Lancet 1997;349:1901-6.

Chanda S, Rakholiya K. Combination therapy: synergism between natural plant extracts and antibiotics against infectious diseases. In: Méndez-Vilas A. editors. Science against microbial pathogens: communicating current research and technological advances. Spain: Formatex; 2011. p. 520-29.

Chong TE, Kee LY, Fei CC, Han HC, Ming WS, Ping CT, et al. Boesenbergia rotunda: from ethnomedicine to drug discovery. a review. J Evidence-Based Complementary Altern Med 2012:1-25. [Article in Press]

Sukandar YS, Sunderam N, Fidrianny I. Activity of Kaempferia pandurata (Roxb.) rhizome ethanol extract against MRSA, MRCNS, MSSA, Bacillus subtilis, and Salmonella typhi. Pak J Biol Sci 2014;17:49-55.

Hwang JK, Rukayadi Y, Han S, Yong D. In vitro antibacterial activity of panduratin an against Enterococci clinical isolates. Biol Pharm Bull 2010;33:1489-93.

Hwang JK, Rukayadi Y, Lee K, Han S, Yong D. In vitro activities of panduratin an against clinical staphylococcus strains. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2009;53:4529-32.

Hwang JK, Shim JS, Pyun YR. Antibacterial activity of xanthorrhizol from Curcuma xanthorrhiza against oral pathogens. Fitoterapia 2000;71:321-3.

Committee on Herbal Medicine Products (HPMC). Assessment Report on Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. (C. xanthorrhiza D. Dietrich)., Rhizoma. London: European Medicines Agency (EMA); 2012.

Mangunwardoyo W, Deasywaty Usia T. Antimicrobial and Identification of active compound Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. Int J Basic Appl Sci 2012;12:69-78.

Kim JU, Kim HE, Lee HJ, Kwon HK, Kim BI, Hwang JK. Antibacterial characteristics of Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract on Streptococcus mutans biofilm. Chin J Microbiol 2008;46:228-32.

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically. Approved Standard M07-A8. 8th ed. Wayne, Philadelphia: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards; 2010. p. 15-8.

Michael JR, Jeffrey RA. Laboratory tests to direct antimicrobial pharmacotherapy. In: Dipiro JT, Talber RL, Yee GC, Matzke GR, Wells BG, Posey LM. Pharmacotherapy: a pathophysiologic approach. 7th ed. United States: The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc; 2008. p. 1715-25.

Garrod LP, Waterworth PM. Methods of testing combined antibiotics bactericidal action and the significance of the results. J Clin Pathol 1962;15:328-38.

Chatterjee SK, Bhattacharjee I, Chandra G. In vitro synergistic effect of doxycycline and ofloxacin in combination with ethanolic leaf extract of Vangueria spinosa against four pathogenic bacteria. Indian J Med Res 2009;130:475-8.

Moghadam SM, Maleki S, Darabpour E, Motamedi H, Nejad MS. Antibacterial activity of eight Iranian plants extracts against methicillin and cefixime-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2010;3:262-5.



How to Cite

Sukandar, E. Y., N. F. Kurniati, K. Anggadiredja, and A. Kamil. “IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF KAEMPFERIA PANDURATA ROXB. AND CURCUMA XANTHORRHIZA ROXB. EXTRACTS IN COMBINATION WITH CERTAIN ANTIBIOTICS AGAINST MSSA AND MRSA”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 8, no. 1, Jan. 2016, pp. 108-11,



Original Article(s)

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>