PARTICULATE DELIVERY SYSTEM OF CHITOSAN - DITERPENE LACTONE FRACTION OF SAMBILOTO (ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA NEES): PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND IN VITRO DRUG RELEASE
Keywords:Chitosan, Diterpene lactone fraction, Particulate systems, Tripolyphosphate, Physical characteristics, Drug release
Objective: This paper was aimed to study the effect of chitosan, sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) as crosslinker, and diterpene lactone fraction of sambiloto (FDTL) from Andrographis paniculata Nees which contained 75.9% andrographolide on the characteristics of the FDTL-chitosan particulate system. Those characteristics were the physicochemical interaction, physical state, morphology, and drug entrapment efficiency. The in vitro drug release of the selected FDTL-chitosan particulate system was also evaluated.
Methods: The particulate system of FDTL-chitosan was prepared by ionic gelationâ€“spray drying method with the various amounts of TPP, chitosan, and FDTL. The physical characteristics were evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), differential thermal analyzer (DTA), and X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope. In vitro drug release was performed in 0.1% sodium lauryl sulfate media at 37Â°C.
Results: The results of FTIR and DTA analysis were in accordance with the results of morphology evaluation which indicated that chitosan-TPP ratio 10:8 could produce chitosan particles with a spherical and smooth surface. FDTL has been trapped in chitosan particulate systems, and the crystallinity of FDTL changed. Particulate systems with FDTL-chitosan-TPP ratio - 4:10:8 showed better characteristics compared to others with entrapment efficiency of 33.82%. The dissolution efficiency at 360 minutes (ED360) of particulate systems FDTL-chitosan was higher up to 1.5 times compared to FDTL.
Conclusion: The difference in the ratio of chitosan and TPP affected the morphology of chitosan particles since the amount of drug loaded, and the amount of chitosan affected the drug entrapment. The ED360 of FDTL of FDTL-chitosan-TPP increased up to 1.5 times compared to the FDTL.
Miladi K, Ibraheem D, Iqbal M, Sfar S, Fessi H, Elaissari A. Particles from preformed polymers as carriers for drug delivery. EXCLI J 2014;13:28-57.
Srikanth K, Gupta RM, Manvi SR, Devanna N. Particulate carrier systems: A review. Int Res J Pharm 2012;3(11):22-6.
Sinha VR, Singla AK, Wadhawan S, Kaushik R, Kumria R, Bansal K, et al. Chitosan microspheres as a potential carrier for drugs. Int J Pharm 2004;274(1-2):1-33.
Harish Prashanth KV, Tharanathan RN. Crosslinked chitosan-- preparation and characterization. Carbohydr Res 2006;341(1):169-73.
Vauthier C, Bouchemal K. Methods for the preparation and manufacture of polymeric nanoparticles. Pharm Res 2009;26(5):1025-58.
Sonia TA, Sharma CP. Chitosan and its derivatives for drug delivery perspective. In: Jayakumar K, Prabahan M, Muzzarelli RA, editors. Chitosan for Biomaterials I. New York: Springer; 2011. p. 24-49.
Kumar BP, Chandiran IS, Bhavya B, Sindhuri M. Microparticulate drug delivery system: A review. Indian J Pharm Sci Res 2011;1(1):19-37.
Agnihotri SA, Mallikarjuna NN, Aminabhavi TM. Recent advances on chitosan-based micro - And nanoparticles in drug delivery. J Control Release 2004;100(1):5-28.
Jarukamjorn K, Nemoto N. Pharmacological aspects of Andrographis paniculata on health and its major diterpenoid constituent andrographolide. J Health Sci 2008;54(4):370-81.
Mishra K, Dash AP, Dey N. Andrographolide: A novel antimalarial diterpen lactone compound from Andrographis paniculata and its interaction with curcumin and artesunate. J Trop Med 2011;2011:6.
Chellampillai B, Pawar AP. Improved bioavailability of orally administered andrographolide from pH-sensitive nanoparticles. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2011;35(3-4):123-9.
Prakash SE, Manavalan R. Development, characterization and/toxicity evaluation of nanoparticles of andrographolide. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4(1):497-501.
Widyawaruyanti A, Hafid AF, Tantular I, Dachliyati L, Santosa MH. Development of malaria phytopharmaca of diterpene lactone fraction os sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Nees). National Strategic Research Competitive Grant Report, Batch I Airlangga/2010. Director General of Higher Education; 2010.
Ghosh VK, Bhope SG, Kuber VV, Gaikwad PS, Patil MJ. Development and validation of dissolution test method for andrographolide from film coated polyherbal tablet formulation. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4(3):307-11.
Bhumkar DR, Pokharkar VB. Studies on effect of pH on cross-linking of chitosan with sodium tripolyphosphate: A technical note. AAPS PharmSciTech 2006;7(2):E50.
Murphy DK, Rabel S. Thermal analysis and calorimetric methods for the characterization of new crystal forms. In: Adeyeye MC, Brittain HG, editors. Preformulation in Solid Dosage Form Development. New York: Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.; 2008; p. 279-321.
How to Cite
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.