PENETRATION TEST OF CAFFEINE IN ETHOSOME AND DESMOSOME GEL USING AN IN VITRO METHOD
Keywords:Caffeine, Desmosome, Ethosome, Penetration study, Phosphatidylcholine, Thin-layer hydration
Objectives: Caffeine has many functions including its use in the field of cosmetics. Nonetheless, the percutaneous absorption of caffeine is very low
(9%), and the penetration of a substance such as caffeine in the skin is not desirable. Ethosomes and desmosomes are lipid vesicles created by the
modification of liposomes containing phospholipids and ethanol or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the penetration enhancer. The purpose of this study
was to compare the effectiveness of ethosomes and desmosomes as vesicles in increasing the penetration of caffeine.
Methods: Ethosomes and desmosomes were prepared using phosphatidylcholine, ethanol/DMSO, and caffeine. Phosphatidylcholine was used in the
form of phospholipon 90 g that was obtained from soybeans. Observations were done including the characteristic of ethosomes and desmosomes,
organoleptic observation, homogeneity observation, and in vitro penetration test using Franz diffusion cell method.
Results: The cumulative penetration of caffeine ethosome gel is 3316.46Â±218.51 Î¼g/cm2, with flux 249.45Â±30.06 Î¼gÂ·cmâˆ’2Â·hrâˆ’1, and 62.35Â±4.52%. The
cumulative penetration of the desmosome gel is 2954.95Â±222.87 Î¼g/cm2 with flux 381.68Â±34.91 Î¼gÂ·cmâˆ’2Â·hrâˆ’1 and 53.4Â±3.65%.
Conclusions: It can be concluded that ethosome is more effective than desmosome in increasing the penetration of caffeine.
Misra H, Mehta D, Mehta BK, Soni M, Jain DC. Study of extraction
and HPTLC - UV method for estimation of caffeine in marketed tea
(Camellia sinensis) granules. Int J Green Pharm 2009;3:47-51.
Luo L, Lane ME. Topical and transdermal delivery of caffeine. Int J
Gajewska M, Paini A, Sala Benito JV, Burton J, Worth A, Urani C, et al.
In vitro-to-in vivo correlation of the skin penetration, liver clearance
and hepatotoxicity of caffeine. Food Chem Toxicol 2015;75:39-49.
Walters KA. Dermatological and Transdermal Formulations. New York:
Marcel Dekker; 2002.
Djajadisastra J. Cosmetic Stability. Presented in HIKI Half Day
Conference. Jakarta, 18th November; 2004.
Razavi H, Janfaza S. Ethosome: A nanocarrier for transdermal drug
delivery. J Paramed Sci 2015;6(2):2-7.
Malika V, Kohli K, Chaudhary H, Kumar V. Nano-carrier for
accentuated transdermal drug delivery. J Dev Drugs 2014;3(2):1-9.
Williams AC, Barry BW. Chemical permeation enhancement. In:
Touitou E, Barry BB, editors. Enhancement in Drug Delivery. United
States of America: CRC Press; 2007.
Trommer H, Neubert RH. Overcoming the stratum corneum: The
modulation of skin penetration. A review. Skin Pharmacol Physiol
Alexander A, Dwivedi S, Ajazuddin, Giri TK, Saraf S, Saraf S, et al.
Approaches for breaking the barriers of drug permeation through
transdermal drug delivery. J Control Release 2012;164(1):26-40.
Wasiaatmadja SM. Cosmetical Medic. Jakarta: UI-Press; 1997.
Rakesh R, Anoop KR. Ethosomes for transdermal and topical drug
delivery. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4 Suppl 3:17-24.
Menezes AC. Management of Skin Cancer by Agonist of 5-HT1A
and Antagonist of 5-HT2A. Thesis. Lisboa, Portugal: Universidade de