• Robert Tungadi Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Sport and Health, State University of Gorontalo, Gorontalo, Indonesia
  • Arlan K. Imran Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Sport and Health, State University of Gorontalo, Gorontalo, Indonesia



Double emulsion, Powder, Snakehead fish, Tween 80


Objective: Snakehead fish has been scientifically proven to increase levels of albumin and boost the immune system so that the formulation development is required. The objective of this study was to formulate and characterize snakehead fish powder (SFP) in the form of the oral double emulsion.

Methods: The manufacture of snakehead fish powder used the conventional method with dry heating at 50 °C. Characterization of SFP utilized proximate analysis method per 3 g of SFP. The double emulsion preparation was carried out by mixing 30% of the primary emulsion (w/o) into 70% of the secondary emulsion (w) to form the w/o/w emulsion. This preparation was prepared in 4 formulas having variations in Tween 80 concentrations at the secondary emulsions of 0.7%, 3.5%, 7.0% and 10.5% w/v, respectively using the spontaneous emulsification method. After that, all formulations were doing some tests, i.e. organoleptic test, pH, viscosity, flow types, globular diameter test and stability tests.

Results: The results of proximate analysis every 3 g of SFP have obtained the contents of protein, 16.89%, lipid 24.52%, water 1.73% and ash 1.05%. Based on the optimization of the formula, the preparation of F4 with the content of Tween 80 at 10.5% secondary emulsion is the best formula due to slow phase separation, pH 7, unchanged organoleptic properties, large internal and external globular diameter (6.35 μm and 8.9 μm), as well as having a high viscosity value (1569.84 p) which correspond to pseudo plastic flow.

Conclusion: The novelty of SFP can be developed as double emulsion orally based on the results of characterization and evaluation of double emulsion.


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Author Biography

Robert Tungadi, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Sport and Health, State University of Gorontalo, Gorontalo, Indonesia

Department of Pharmacy


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How to Cite

Tungadi, R., & Imran, A. K. (2018). FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SNAKEHEAD FISH POWDER IN ORAL DOUBLE EMULSION. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 10(2), 70–75.



Original Article(s)