• Shefrin S. Department of Pharmaceutics, Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, AIMS Health Science Campus, Kochi, India
  • Sreelaxmi C. S. Department of Pharmaceutics, Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, AIMS Health Science Campus, Kochi, India
  • Vishnu Vijayan Department of Pharmaceutics, Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, AIMS Health Science Campus, Kochi, India
  • Sreeja C. Nair Department of Pharmaceutics, Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, AIMS Health Science Campus, Kochi, India



Status epilepticus, Midazolam, Niosome, Soya bean oil, Niosomal transdermal patch, Gelatin


Objective: To formulate and characterize midazolam loaded niosomal transdermal patches for overcoming the frequent dosing and lower bioavailability complications associated with conventional therapy.

Methods: The loaded niosomal transdermal patches were prepared by thin film hydration method. The preliminary evaluation and characterization studies was conducted to find the optimised formulation. The in vitro release and ex-vivo permeation studies were investigated. The histopathological studies and stability studies were also assessed.

Results: The midazolam loaded niosomal transdermal patches of vesicle size and zeta potential 116.1±84.46 d. nm and 8.56±1.2 mV respectively was formulated. The characterizations of both niosome and niosomal transdermal patches were found to be within the acceptable limits. The in vitro drug release showed an initial burst release followed by sustained release for both optimised niosomal formulation N5 and optimised niosomal transdermal patch formulation NT5with a maximum activity at 97.3±0.35% and 98.9±0.20% respectively. The ex vivo permeation studies of niosomal transdermal patch NT5 was performed which showed a higher permeability than control solution with a flux value of 0.151. The histopathological studies of the optimised formulation showed no detectable lesions upon skin surface and irritations. The stability studies showed that patches were stable over 90 d in different atmospheric conditions.

Conclusion: The midazolam loaded niosomal transdermal patch was found to be a promising nano drug delivery alternative which showed better entrapment, release with permeation profile for the daily management of epilepsy with decreased dosing frequency.


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How to Cite

S., S., S., S. C., Vijayan, V., & Nair, S. C. (2019). ANTI-EPILEPTIC DRUG LOADED NIOSOMAL TRANSDERMAL PATCH FOR ENHANCED SKIN PERMEATION. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 11(2), 31–43.



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