• Amalia Sitti Khayyira Division of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, UI Depok Campus, Depok, Indonesia 16424
  • Viktoria Mardhika Estepane Division of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, UI Depok Campus, Depok, Indonesia 16424
  • Amarila Malik Division of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, UI Depok Campus, Depok, Indonesia 16424




Nil, Optimization of porcine DNA


Objective: This study was conducted to optimize the genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) based molecular detection of gelatin derived from porcine by performing polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and duplex PCR method employing cyt B gene.

Methods: Optimization was carried out for DNA extraction, PCR conditions, and the sensitivity of the PCR-RFLP method. Due to the very low DNA trace in gelatin after the various manufacturing process, the extraction was optimized to obtain sufficient DNA which was visible on the agarose gel. PCR-RFLP was carried out using universal primers and BsaJI restriction enzyme, and duplex PCR was carried out using two sets of porcine-specific primers. Porcine and bovine DNA were mixed in various concentration to confirm sensitivity of both methods, i.e. 100%, 50%, 10%, 1%, 0.5%, 0.1%, 0.05%, and 0.01%

Results: Both methods, PCR-RFLP, and Duplex PCR, were able to detect as low as 0.01% porcine DNA, indicated by the presence of porcine DNA amplicon bands (131 bp and 228 bp for PCR-RFLP, 212 bp and 398 bp for duplex PCR). Although DNA bands presented in low intensity, identification of porcine and bovine species and estimation of DNA quantities were possible.

Conclusion: Both conventional PCR methods, i.e. PCR-RFLP and Duplex PCR, were sensitive, specific, and suitable as a rapid initial detection method for molecular detection of porcine in gelatin capsule shells.


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Author Biography

Amarila Malik, Division of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, UI Depok Campus, Depok, Indonesia 16424



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How to Cite

Khayyira, A. S., Estepane, V. M., & Malik, A. (2018). RAPID PCR–BASED DETECTION OPTIMIZATION OF PORCINE DNA IN GELATIN CAPSULE SHELL. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 10(6), 217–223. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2018v10i6.29346



Original Article(s)