• GNANASEKARAN JOHN SELVARAJ Department of Pharmacy Practice, Vinayaka Mission’s College of Pharmacy, Vinayaka Mission’s Research Foundation (Deemed to be University), Salem 636008, Tamilnadu, India
  • ARUL BALASUBRAMANIAN Department of Pharmacy Practice, Vinayaka Mission’s College of Pharmacy, Vinayaka Mission’s Research Foundation (Deemed to be University), Salem 636008, Tamilnadu, India
  • KOTHAI RAMALINGAM Department of Pharmacy Practice, Vinayaka Mission’s College of Pharmacy, Vinayaka Mission’s Research Foundation (Deemed to be University), Salem 636008, Tamilnadu, India



Mucoadhesion, Ocimum basilicum, Pentoxifylline


Objective: The present study was planned to develop a mucoadhesive tablet formulation of the drug pentoxifylline using natural mucoadhesive polymer from the plant Ocimum basilicum Linn.

Methods: The isolated polymer was used to formulate the mucoadhesive tablets with 3 different concentrations. The tablets were formulated by using direct compression technique and evaluated for various parameters such as thickness, friability, weight variation, hardness, mucoadhesive strength, swelling index by standard methods, and the in vitro drug release studies in USP dissolution test apparatus type-II.

Results: The swelling index was indirectly proportional to the polymer concentration and the tablets with a high concentration of polymer showed better mucoadhesive strength (28.5532±0.4660). The in vitro drug release showed that the drug release was indirectly proportional to the polymer concentration. The formulation F3 showed the controlled release of drug pentoxifylline (99.84±1.86) for 10 h. The mechanism of drug release was found to be Fickian diffusion and followed the zero-order kinetics, which was proved by its highest linearity (r2) in all the formulations.

Conclusion: The tablets formulated with the isolated polymer of Ocimum basilicum Linn showed the good mucoadhesive mucoadhesive property and it controlled the release of the pentoxifylline.


Download data is not yet available.


Jimenez Castellanos MR Zia H, Rhodes CT. Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 1993;19:143–94.

Good RJ. Definition on adhesion. J Adhes 1976;8:1–9.

Peppas NA, Buri PA. Surface, interfacial and molecular aspects of polymer bioadhesion on soft tissues. J Controlled Release 1985;2:257–75.

Longer M, Robinson J. Fundamental aspects of bioadhesion. Pharm Int 1986;7:114–7.

Ahuja A, Khar RK Ali J. Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 1997;23:489–515.

Nagai T, Machida Y. Advances in drug delivery, mucosal adhesive dosage forms. Pharm Int 1985;6:196–200.

Gayot A. Bioadhesive polymers. J Pharm Belg 1985;40:332–8.

Cilurzo F, Minghetti P, Selmin F, Casiraghi A, Montanari L. Polymethacrylate salts as new low-swellable mucoadhesive materials. J Controlled Release 2000;88:43–53.

Miyazaki S, Kawasaki N, Nakamura T, Iwatsu M, Hayashi T, Hou WM, et al. Oral mucosal bioadhesive tablets of pectin and HPMC: in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Int J Pharm 2000;204:127–32.

Han Gon C, Jac Hee J, Chul Soon Y, Chong Dal R, Mi Kyung L, Jeong Hee H, et al. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of omeperazole buccal adhesive tablet. J Controlled Release 2000;68:405–12.

Sang Chl S, J YK. Enhanced permeation of triamcinolone acetonide through the buccal mucosa. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2000;40:217–20.

Shah HP, Prajapati ST, Patel C. Gastroretentive drug delivery systems: from conception to commercial success. J Crit Rev 2017;4:10–21.

Prakash V. Leafy spices. CRC Press; 1990. p. 114.

Simon J, Quinn J, Murray R. Basil: a source of essential oil. In: Advances in new crops. J Janick, Simon J. editors. Timloer Press, Portland, OR; 1990. p. 484–9.

Marotti M, Piccaglia R, Giovanelli E. Differences in essential oil composition of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Italian cultivars related to morphological characteristics. J Agric Food Chemo 1996;44:3926–9.

Mathews S. Ocimum basilicum: a new non-conventional source of fibre. Food Chem 1993;47:399–401.

Bhosale A, Hardikar S, Pathak A, Sable R. Investigation of hydrogel isolated from seeds of Ocimum basilicum as binder. Indian J Pharm Sci 2009;71:320–2.

Khazaei N, Esmaiili M, Djomeh Z, Ghasemlou M, Jouki M. Characterization of new biodegradable edible film made from basil seed (Ocimum basilicum L.) gum. Carbohydr Polym 2014;102:199–206.

Akbari I, Ghoreishi S, Habibi N. Supercritical CO2 generation of nanometric structure from Ocimum basilicum mucilage prepared for pharmaceutical applications. AAPS PharmSciTech 2015;16:428–34.

Naji Tabasi S, Razavi S, Mehditabar H. Fabrication of basil seed gum nanoparticles as a novel oral delivery system of glutathione. Carbohydr Polym 2017;157:1703–13.

Rayegan A, Allafchian A, Sarsari IA, Kameli P. Synthesis and characterization of basil seed mucilage coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles as a drug carrier for the controlled delivery of cephalexin. Int J Biol Macromol 2018;113:317–28.

Rao PS, Srivastava HC. Tamarind. In: Industrial Gums. 2nd edn. RL W. editor. Academic Press: New York; 1973. p. 369–411.

Parodi B, Russo E, Caviglioli G, Cafaggi S, Bignardi G. Development and characterization of a buccoadhesive dosage form of oxycodone hydrochloride. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 1996;22:445–50.

Kshirsagar R, Vikas J, Wattamwar S. Effect of different viscosity grade HPMC polymers on gastro retentive drug delivery of metformin Hcl. Int J Appl Pharm 2009;1:44–50.

Gnanasekaran J, Arul B, Kothai R. Development of mucoadhesive tablet of pentoxifylline using a natural polymer from Manilkara zapota linn. Int J Appl Pharm 2019;11:88–91.

Kashappa Goud, Desai H, Pramod Kumar TM. Preparation and evaluation of a novel buccal adhesive system. AAPS PharmSciTech 2004;5:35–8.

Bagul U, Gujar K, Dhat S, Aphale S, Bhavsar M. In vitro study of mucoadhesive strength of polymers for mucoadhesive drug delivery systems. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2009;1:42–6.

Patil P, Kulkarni SV, Rao BS, Ammanage A, Surpur C. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of mucoadhesive tablets of ofloxacin using natural gums. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2011;3:93–8.

Gupta S, Dev A. Formulation and characterization of mucoadhesive matrix tablet of nizatidine. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:277–83.

Hadjiioannou TP, Christian GD, Koupparis MA. Quantitative calculations in pharmaceutical practices and research. New Delhi: NY-VCH publishers Inc; 1993. p. 345–8.

Higuchi T. Mechanism of sustained action of medication. Theoretical analysis of rate of release of solid drugs dispersed in solid matrices. J Pharm Sci 1963;52:1145–9.

Bourne DW. Pharmacokinetics. In: Modern Pharmaceutical. 4th ed. Banker GS, Rhodes CT E. editor. New York: Marcel. Dekker Inc.; 2002. p. 67–92.

Korsmeyer RW, Gurny R, Doelker E, Buri P, Peppas NA. Mechanisms of solute release from porous hydrophilic polymers. Int J Pharm 1983;15:25–36.

Mithal B, Kasid J. Evaluation of suspending properties of Plantago ovata (Ispaghula) seed husk. Indian J Pharm Sci 1965;27:331–5.

Baveja S, Gupta B. Rheology of aqueous dispersions of Plantago ovata seed husk-I. Indian J Pharm Sci 1968;30:187–94.

Ilango R, Kavimani S, Mullaicharam AR JB. In vitro studies on buccal strips of glibenclamide using chitosan. Indian J Pharm Sci 1997;59:232–5.

Saraswathi B, Balaji A, Umashankar M. Polymers in mucoadhesive drug delivery system-latest updates. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013;5:423–30.

Park H, Robinson JR. Mechanisms of mucoadhesion of poly (acrylic acid) hydrogels. Pharm Res 1987;4:457–64.

Peppas NA. Analysis of fickian and non-fickian drug release from polymers. Pharm Acta Helv 1985;60:110–1.

Kumar BP, Kavitha P, Devi KJ. Formulation design and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal tablets of nitroglycerin. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:251–9.

Sood A, Panchagnula R. Drug release evaluation of diltiazem cr preparations. Int J Pharm 1998;175:95–107.



How to Cite




Original Article(s)